Local loop

subscriber lineloopsubscriber looptelephone circuitcopper paircircuitcord circuitlineloop lengthloops
In telephony, the local loop (also referred to as a local tail, subscriber line, or in the aggregate as the last mile) is the physical link or circuit that connects from the demarcation point of the customer premises to the edge of the common carrier or telecommunications service provider's network.wikipedia
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Telephony

digital telephonytelephonedigital
In telephony, the local loop (also referred to as a local tail, subscriber line, or in the aggregate as the last mile) is the physical link or circuit that connects from the demarcation point of the customer premises to the edge of the common carrier or telecommunications service provider's network.
Each telephone was connected to the exchange via one wire pair, the local loop.

Last mile

last-milefirst-milelast kilometre
In telephony, the local loop (also referred to as a local tail, subscriber line, or in the aggregate as the last mile) is the physical link or circuit that connects from the demarcation point of the customer premises to the edge of the common carrier or telecommunications service provider's network.
Examples are the copper wire subscriber lines connecting landline telephones to the local telephone exchange; coaxial cable service drops carrying cable television signals from utility poles to subscribers' homes, and cell towers linking local cell phones to the cellular network.

Demarcation point

DanishDanesdemarcation
In telephony, the local loop (also referred to as a local tail, subscriber line, or in the aggregate as the last mile) is the physical link or circuit that connects from the demarcation point of the customer premises to the edge of the common carrier or telecommunications service provider's network.
AT&T owned the local loop, including the telephone wiring within the customer premises and the customer telephone equipment.

Party line (telephony)

party lineparty linestelephone party line
Hence party line service was often given to residential customers to minimise the number of local loops required.
A party line (multiparty line, shared service line, party wire) is a local loop telephone circuit that is shared by multiple telephone service subscribers.

Telephone exchange

exchangescentral officeexchange
At the edge of the carrier access network in a traditional public telephone network, the local loop terminates in a circuit switch housed in an incumbent local exchange carrier or telephone exchange. Traditionally, the local loop was an electrical circuit in the form of a single pair of conductors from the telephone on the customer's premises to the local telephone exchange.
In United States telecommunication jargon, a central office (C.O.) is a common carrier switching center Class 5 telephone switch in which trunks and local loops are terminated and switched.

Digital loop carrier

Remote Integrated MultiplexerRIMs
Modern implementations may include a digital loop carrier system segment or fiber optic transmission system.
A digital loop carrier (DLC) is a system which uses digital transmission to extend the range of the local loop farther than would be possible using only twisted pair copper wires.

Integrated Services Digital Network

ISDN ISDNISDN30
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
Integrated services refers to ISDN's ability to deliver at minimum two simultaneous connections, in any combination of data, voice, video, and fax, over a single line.

Plain old telephone service

POTSLocal Telephone Servicetelephone
analog voice and signaling used in traditional POTS
The pair of wires from the central office switch to a subscriber's home is called a subscriber loop.

Access network

accessaccess attemptaccess networks
At the edge of the carrier access network in a traditional public telephone network, the local loop terminates in a circuit switch housed in an incumbent local exchange carrier or telephone exchange.
Local loop

Outside plant

outdoor landlinesroadside cabinetsingle cable
Usually all these circuits went into aerial or buried cables with a twisted pair for each local loop nearer the exchange, see outside plant.
In civilian telecommunications, the copper access network (also known as the local loop) providing basic telephone or DSL services typically consists of the following elements:

Competitive local exchange carrier

CLECcompeting carrierCompetitive Local Exchange Carriers
The local loop may terminate at a circuit switch owned by a competitive local exchange carrier and housed in a point of presence (POP), which typically is an incumbent local exchange carrier telephone exchange.
In December 2004, the FCC released another set of rules which phase out, over a year, all CLEC leasing of ILEC local switching, while preserving access to most copper local loops and some interoffice facilities.

Digital subscriber line

DSLxDSLDigital Subscriber Line (DSL)
variants of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL).
Telephones are connected to the telephone exchange via a local loop, which is a physical pair of wires.

Local-loop unbundling

local loop unbundlingLLUunbundled
Local-loop unbundling
The physical wire connection between the local exchange and the customer is known as a "local loop", and is owned by the incumbent local exchange carrier (also referred to as the "ILEC", "local exchange", or in the United States either a "Baby Bell" or an independent telephone company).

Serving area interface

cabinetisation Telecoms Cabinetcabinet
Serving area interface
The SAI provides the termination of individual twisted pairs of a telephony local loop for onward connection back to the nearest telephone exchange (US: "central office" (CO)) or remote switch, or first to transmission equipment such as a subscriber loop carrier multiplexer and then to the exchange main distribution frame (MDF).

Telephone line

phone linelinetelephone lines
Telephone line
In 1878, the Bell Telephone Company began to use two-wire circuits (called the local loop) from each user's telephone to end offices which performed any necessary electrical switching to allow voice signals to be transmitted to more distant telephones.

Customer-premises equipment

customer premises equipmentCPEcustomer premises
In telephony, the local loop (also referred to as a local tail, subscriber line, or in the aggregate as the last mile) is the physical link or circuit that connects from the demarcation point of the customer premises to the edge of the common carrier or telecommunications service provider's network.

Common carrier

carriercommon carrierscommon-carrier
In telephony, the local loop (also referred to as a local tail, subscriber line, or in the aggregate as the last mile) is the physical link or circuit that connects from the demarcation point of the customer premises to the edge of the common carrier or telecommunications service provider's network.

Telecommunications service provider

telecomtelecommunicationstelecommunications provider
In telephony, the local loop (also referred to as a local tail, subscriber line, or in the aggregate as the last mile) is the physical link or circuit that connects from the demarcation point of the customer premises to the edge of the common carrier or telecommunications service provider's network.

Local exchange carrier

Local Exchange NetworkLEClocal
At the edge of the carrier access network in a traditional public telephone network, the local loop terminates in a circuit switch housed in an incumbent local exchange carrier or telephone exchange.

Electrical network

circuitelectrical circuitelectric circuit
Traditionally, the local loop was an electrical circuit in the form of a single pair of conductors from the telephone on the customer's premises to the local telephone exchange.

Single-wire earth return

ground returnlow-cost electric intertiessingle wire earth return
Single-wire earth return lines had been used in some countries until the introduction of electric tramways from the 1900s made them unusable.

Twisted pair

twisted-pairunshielded twisted pairshielded twisted pair
Usually all these circuits went into aerial or buried cables with a twisted pair for each local loop nearer the exchange, see outside plant.

Optical fiber

fiber opticfiber opticsfibre optic
Modern implementations may include a digital loop carrier system segment or fiber optic transmission system.

Point of presence

points of presencePOPPOPs
The local loop may terminate at a circuit switch owned by a competitive local exchange carrier and housed in a point of presence (POP), which typically is an incumbent local exchange carrier telephone exchange.