Locus coeruleus

locus ceruleuslocus coereuleuslocus coeruleus-noradrenergic systemnorepinephrine pathway
The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus ) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.wikipedia
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Melanin

eumelaninpheomelaninphaeomelanin
Melanin granules inside the neurons of the LC contribute to its blue colour.
In the brain, tissues with melanin include the medulla and pigment-bearing neurons within areas of the brainstem, such as the locus coeruleus.

Neuromelanin

The neuromelanin is formed by the polymerization of noradrenaline and is analogous to the black dopamine-based neuromelanin in the substantia nigra.
Neuromelanin is found in large quantities in catecholaminergic cells of the substantia nigra pars compacta and locus coeruleus, giving a dark color to the structures.

Amygdala

amygdalaeamygdaloidamygdaloid complex
For example, they innervate the spinal cord, the brain stem, cerebellum, hypothalamus, the thalamic relay nuclei, the amygdala, the basal telencephalon, and the cortex. Psychiatric research has documented that enhanced noradrenergic postsynaptic responsiveness in the neuronal pathway (brain circuit) that originates in the locus coeruleus and ends in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala is a major factor in the pathophysiology of most stress-induced fear-circuitry disorders and especially in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
The amygdala sends projections to the hypothalamus, the dorsomedial thalamus, the thalamic reticular nucleus, the nuclei of the trigeminal nerve and the facial nerve, the ventral tegmental area, the locus coeruleus, and the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus.

Hypothalamus

hypothalamicanterior hypothalamushypothalamic hormones
For example, they innervate the spinal cord, the brain stem, cerebellum, hypothalamus, the thalamic relay nuclei, the amygdala, the basal telencephalon, and the cortex.
The hypothalamus receives many inputs from the brainstem, the most notable from the nucleus of the solitary tract, the locus coeruleus, and the ventrolateral medulla.

Arousal

physiological arousalarousedactivation
The norepinephrine from the LC has an excitatory effect on most of the brain, mediating arousal and priming the brain's neurons to be activated by stimuli.
The noradrenergic system is a bundle of axons that originate in the locus coeruleus and ascends up into the neocortex, limbic system, and basal forebrain.

Fourth ventricle

fastigiumventricle
The locus coeruleus (LC) is located in the posterior area of the rostral pons in the lateral floor of the fourth ventricle.
In the superior region of the pons is the locus coeruleus, which due to its concentration of noradrenaline has a sky blue appearance, visible (in a colour closer to teal) through the floor of the ventricle, superiorly to the superior fovea.

Rapid eye movement sleep

REM sleepREMrapid eye movement
Neural activity during REM sleep seems to originate in the brain stem, especially the pontine tegmentum and locus coeruleus.

Stress (biology)

stressenvironmental stressemotional stress
The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus ) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.

Hippocampus

hippocampalhippocampihippocampal formation
Different thalamic nuclei, (from the anterior and midline groups), the medial septal nucleus, the supramamillary nucleus of the hypothalamus, and the raphe nuclei and locus coeruleus of the brainstem all send axons to the EC, so that it serves as the interface between the neocortex and the other connections, and the hippocampus.

Dorsal raphe nucleus

dorsal raphecaudal raphedorsal
The cerebellum and afferents from the raphe nuclei also project to the LC, in particular the pontine raphe nucleus and dorsal raphe nucleus.
The nucleus raphes dorsalis have been known to project to the lateral hypothalamus, along with the locus coeruleus and the tuberomammillary nucleus.

Brainstem

brain stembrain-stemback of the skull
The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus ) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.

Panic disorder

panicpanic disorderspanic disorde
The locus coeruleus may figure in clinical depression, panic disorder, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and anxiety.
This circuit consists of the amygdala, central gray matter, ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, and the locus ceruleus.

Major depressive disorder

depressionclinical depressionmajor depression
The locus coeruleus may figure in clinical depression, panic disorder, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and anxiety.
Third, decreased size of the locus coeruleus, decreased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase, increased density of alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, and evidence from rat models suggest decreased adrenergic neurotransmission in depression.

Nucleus paragigantocellularis

The nPGi is one of two major afferents of the locus coeruleus (LC), and sends collateral projections to the LC and to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).

Alzheimer's disease

AlzheimerAlzheimer’s diseaseAlzheimer disease
The locus coeruleus may figure in clinical depression, panic disorder, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and anxiety.
Degeneration is also present in brainstem nuclei like the locus coeruleus.

Ventral tegmental area

ventral tegmentumventral tegmental area (VTA)ventral tegmental nuclei
These GABAergic neurons regulate the firing of their dopaminergic counterparts that send projections throughout the brain to, but not limited to, the following regions: the prefrontal cortex, the nucleus accumbens, and the locus coeruleus.

Raphe nuclei

raphe nucleusraphe raphe nuclei
The cerebellum and afferents from the raphe nuclei also project to the LC, in particular the pontine raphe nucleus and dorsal raphe nucleus.

Posttraumatic stress disorder

post-traumatic stress disorderPTSDpost traumatic stress disorder
Psychiatric research has documented that enhanced noradrenergic postsynaptic responsiveness in the neuronal pathway (brain circuit) that originates in the locus coeruleus and ends in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala is a major factor in the pathophysiology of most stress-induced fear-circuitry disorders and especially in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
The maintenance of fear has been shown to include the HPA axis, the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic systems, and the connections between the limbic system and frontal cortex.

Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

SNRIserotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitorSNRIs
Some medications including norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (reboxetine, atomoxetine), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (venlafaxine, duloxetine), and norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (bupropion) are believed to show efficacy by acting upon neurons in this area.
These regions are locus coeruleus and lateral tegmental.

Norepinephrine

noradrenalinenoradrenergicnoradrenalin
The locus coeruleus is the principal site for brain synthesis of norepinephrine (noradrenaline).
The most important of these nuclei is the locus coeruleus, located in the pons.

Rett syndrome

Rett's syndromeRettRett's Disorder
The genetic defect of the transcriptional regulator MECP2 is responsible for Rett syndrome.
The genetic loss of MECP2 changes the properties of cells in the locus coeruleus, the exclusive source of noradrenergic innervation to the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

Johann Christian Reil

Reil
It was discovered in 1784 by Félix Vicq-d'Azyr, redescribed later by Johann Christian Reil in 1809 and named by Joseph Wenzel and Karl Wenzel brothers in 1812.
He is frequently and erroneously crediting with discovering the locus coeruleus, which was first described by Félix Vicq-d'Azyr.

Félix Vicq-d'Azyr

Félix Vicq d'AzyrVicq d'AzyrFelix Vicq-d'Azyr
It was discovered in 1784 by Félix Vicq-d'Azyr, redescribed later by Johann Christian Reil in 1809 and named by Joseph Wenzel and Karl Wenzel brothers in 1812.
He described the locus coeruleus, the locus niger (substantia nigra) in the brain, in 1786, and the band of Vicq d'Azyr, a fiber system between the external granular layer and the external pyramidal layer of the cerebral cortex, as well as the Mamillo-thalamic tract, which bears his name.

MECP2

methyl-CpG-binding proteinMethyl-CpG-binding protein 2CpG binding protein 2
The genetic defect of the transcriptional regulator MECP2 is responsible for Rett syndrome.
The genetic loss of MECP2 has been identified as changing the properties of cells in the locus ceruleus the exclusive source of noradrenergic innervation to the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.