Logos

λόγοςWordWord of GodLogoiGod the Word(''logoi'')Content guideline: using logos on Wikipediadivine GroundEternal Reasonfire of knowledge
Logos (, ; ; from λέγω, ) is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse".wikipedia
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Heraclitus

Heraclitus of EphesusHeracliteanpanta rhei
It became a technical term in Western philosophy beginning with Heraclitus (c. Plotinus referred back to Heraclitus and as far back as Thales in interpreting logos as the principle of meditation, existing as the interrelationship between the hypostases—the soul, the intellect (nous), and the One.
Heraclitus believed the world was somehow in accordance with Logos (literally, "word", "reason", or "account").

Modes of persuasion

Rhetorical appealsAristotelian argumentationAristotelian triad of appeals
Aristotle applied the term to refer to "reasoned discourse" or "the argument" in the field of rhetoric, and considered it one of the three modes of persuasion alongside ethos and pathos. Following one of the other meanings of the word, Aristotle gave logos a different technical definition in the Rhetoric, using it as meaning argument from reason, one of the three modes of persuasion.
They are: ethos, pathos, and logos, and the less-used kairos.

Pathos

pathetic-pathyappeal to the listener's emotions
Aristotle applied the term to refer to "reasoned discourse" or "the argument" in the field of rhetoric, and considered it one of the three modes of persuasion alongside ethos and pathos.
Pathos is a communication technique used most often in rhetoric (in which it is considered one of the three modes of persuasion, alongside ethos and logos), as well as in literature, film and other narrative art.

Rhetoric

rhetoricianrhetorrhetorical
Logos (, ; ; from λέγω, ) is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse".
Rhetoric typically provides heuristics for understanding, discovering, and developing arguments for particular situations, such as Aristotle's three persuasive audience appeals: logos, pathos, and ethos.

Gospel of John

JohnJohn's GospelFourth Gospel
The Gospel of John identifies the Christian Logos, through which all things are made, as divine (theos), and further identifies Jesus Christ as the incarnate Logos.
In Ancient Greek philosophy, the term logos meant the principle of cosmic reason.

Ethos

characteretheacharacter as a people
Aristotle applied the term to refer to "reasoned discourse" or "the argument" in the field of rhetoric, and considered it one of the three modes of persuasion alongside ethos and pathos.
In rhetoric, ethos is one of the three artistic proofs (pistis, πίστις) or modes of persuasion (other principles being logos and pathos) discussed by Aristotle in 'Rhetoric' as a component of argument.

Reason

reasoningratiocinationhuman reason
300 BC, in which the logos was the active reason pervading and animating the Universe.
He used the word speech as an English version of the Greek word logos so that speech did not need to be communicated.

Philo

Philo of AlexandriaPhilo JudaeusPhilo Judaeus of Alexandria
Within Hellenistic Judaism, Philo (c.
Some scholars hold that his concept of the Logos as God's creative principle influenced early Christology.

Aristotle

AristotelianAristotelesAristote
Aristotle applied the term to refer to "reasoned discourse" or "the argument" in the field of rhetoric, and considered it one of the three modes of persuasion alongside ethos and pathos. Following one of the other meanings of the word, Aristotle gave logos a different technical definition in the Rhetoric, using it as meaning argument from reason, one of the three modes of persuasion.
Aristotle reasoned that humans must have a function specific to humans, and that this function must be an activity of the psuchē (soul) in accordance with reason (logos).

Meditations

The MeditationsThe Meditations of Marcus AureliusGolden Book
In his Introduction to the 1964 edition of Marcus Aurelius' Meditations, the Anglican priest Maxwell Staniforth wrote that "Logos ... had long been one of the leading terms of Stoicism, chosen originally for the purpose of explaining how deity came into relation with the universe".
An order or logos permeates existence.

Stoicism

StoicStoicsStoic philosophy
In his Introduction to the 1964 edition of Marcus Aurelius' Meditations, the Anglican priest Maxwell Staniforth wrote that "Logos ... had long been one of the leading terms of Stoicism, chosen originally for the purpose of explaining how deity came into relation with the universe". The Stoics spoke of the logos spermatikos (the generative principle of the Universe) which foreshadows related concepts in Neoplatonism. Stoic philosophy began with Zeno of Citium c.
Stoicism teaches the development of self-control and fortitude as a means of overcoming destructive emotions; the philosophy holds that becoming a clear and unbiased thinker allows one to understand the universal reason (logos).

Rhetoric (Aristotle)

RhetoricThe Art of Rhetoricars rhetorica
Following one of the other meanings of the word, Aristotle gave logos a different technical definition in the Rhetoric, using it as meaning argument from reason, one of the three modes of persuasion.
Book II discusses in detail the three means of persuasion that an orator must rely on: those grounded in credibility (ethos), in the emotions and psychology of the audience (pathos), and in patterns of reasoning (logos).

John 1:1

prologue to the Gospel of JohnprologueBeginning of the Gospel of John
The concept derives from John 1:1, which in the Douay–Rheims, King James, New International, and other versions of the Bible, reads:
This verse and others throughout Johannine literature connect the Christian understanding of Jesus to the philosophical idea of the Logos and the Hebrew Wisdom literature.

Hellenistic Judaism

Hellenistic JewishHellenized JewsHellenistic Jews
Within Hellenistic Judaism, Philo (c. 20 BC), a Hellenized Jew, used the term logos to mean an intermediary divine being or demiurge.
Consequently, Hellenistic Judaism emphasized monotheistic doctrine (heis theos), and represented reason (logos) and wisdom (sophia) as emanations from God.

Demiurge

YaldabaothIaldabaothdemiurgic
20 BC), a Hellenized Jew, used the term logos to mean an intermediary divine being or demiurge.

Trinity

Holy TrinityTrinitarianTrinitarianism
In Christology, the Logos is a name or title of Jesus Christ, seen as the pre-existent second person of the Trinity.
In 325, the First Council of Nicaea adopted the Nicene Creed which described Christ as "God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father", and the "Holy Ghost" as the one by which was incarnate... of the Virgin Mary". ("the Word was made flesh and dwelled among us"). About the Father and the Son, the creed used the term homoousios (of one substance) to define the relationship between the Father and the Son. After more than fifty years of debate, homoousios was recognised as the hallmark of orthodoxy, and was further developed into the formula of "three persons, one being".

Logos (Christianity)

LogosWordWord of God
The Gospel of John identifies the Christian Logos, through which all things are made, as divine (theos), and further identifies Jesus Christ as the incarnate Logos.

Nous

noesisnoeticIntellect
Plotinus referred back to Heraclitus and as far back as Thales in interpreting logos as the principle of meditation, existing as the interrelationship between the hypostases—the soul, the intellect (nous), and the One.
For example, Empedocles, like Hesiod much earlier, described cosmic order and living things as caused by a cosmic version of love, and Pythagoras and Heraclitus, attributed the cosmos with "reason" (logos).

Jesus in Christianity

JesusJesus ChristChrist
In Christology, the Logos is a name or title of Jesus Christ, seen as the pre-existent second person of the Trinity.
In Christology, the concept that the Christ is the Logos (i.e., "The Word") has been important in establishing the doctrine of the divinity of Christ and his position as God the Son in the Trinity as set forth in the Chalcedonian Creed.

Carl Jung

JungCarl Gustav JungC. G. Jung
The term is also used in Sufism, and the analytical psychology of Carl Jung.

Plotinus

PlotinianPlotinPlotino
Neoplatonist philosophers such as Plotinus (c.
The first emanation is Nous (Divine Mind, Logos, Order, Thought, Reason), identified metaphorically with the Demiurge in Plato's Timaeus.

God

Supreme BeingLordnature of God
The Gospel of John identifies the Christian Logos, through which all things are made, as divine (theos), and further identifies Jesus Christ as the incarnate Logos.

Zeno of Citium

ZenoZeno the StoicZenon
Stoic philosophy began with Zeno of Citium c.
"Happiness is a good flow of life," said Zeno, and this can only be achieved through the use of right Reason coinciding with the Universal Reason (Logos), which governs everything.

Universe

physical worldThe Universeuniverses
300 BC, in which the logos was the active reason pervading and animating the Universe.
Anaxagoras proposed the principle of Nous (Mind), while Heraclitus proposed fire (and spoke of logos).

Logocracy

It is derived from the Greek λόγος (logos)—"word" and from κράτος (kratos)—to "govern".