Lombard League

Lombard standard bearer re-entering Milan in 1167 (the year of the League's foundation) after its destruction in 1162 by Emperor Frederick I. Bas-relief Porta Romana, Milan (1171)
Member cities of the first and second Lombard League.
Lombard milites depicted on the Porta Romana relief of 1171
A Bronze replica of the Peace of Constance in Konstanz. Illustrating the comunes of the Lombard League in 1183.
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Cortenuova (1237)
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Parma (1248)
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Fossalta (1249)

Medieval alliance formed in 1167, supported by the popes, to counter the attempts by the Hohenstaufen Holy Roman emperors to assert influence over the Kingdom of Italy as a part of the Holy Roman Empire.

- Lombard League

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City and comune in Piedmont, Italy, and the capital of the Province of Alessandria.

Alessandria was founded in 1168 with a charter as a free comune; it was sited upon a preexisting urban nucleus, to serve as a stronghold for the Lombard League, defending the traditional liberties of the communes of northern Italy against the Imperial forces of Frederick Barbarossa.

Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire)

One of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy.

The Kingdom of Italy within the Holy Roman Empire and within Europe in the early 11th century.
The Iron Crown of Lombardy, now at Monza Cathedral
The Kingdom of Italy within the Holy Roman Empire and within Europe in the early 11th century.
Imperial Italy (outlined in red) in the 12th and 13th centuries
Imperial Italy within the Holy Roman Empire in 1356

The Lombard League was the most famous example of this situation; though not a declared separatist movement, it openly challenged the emperor's claim to power.


The name given to the holder of the highest civil office in the government of the cities of Central and Northern Italy during the Late Middle Ages.

The Palace of the Podestà in Florence, now the Bargello museum
Portrait of a Podestà by Lodewijk Toeput

From the start, this was very unpopular, and their often arbitrary behaviour was a factor in bringing about the formation of the Lombard League and the uprising against Frederick in 1167.

March of Verona

Vast march of the Holy Roman Empire in northeastern Italy during the Middle Ages, centered on the cities of Verona and Aquileia.

Italy about 1050, with the Veronese march in the northeast
Carinthian panther of the dukes of Carinthia

The margravial regime ended with the advent of the Lombard League in 1167.


City in northeastern Italy.

Basilica Palladiana
Piazza dei Signori
Basilica Palladiana with clock tower
A night view of the Basilica Palladiana
The three-dimensional stage of the Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza
Palazzo Thiene Bonin Longare, designed by Palladio and built by Vincenzo Scamozzi
Porta Castello Tower
Plaque for Vicenza in the UNESCO World Heritage List
A plate of Baccalà alla vicentina, a typical dish of the city

It took an active part in the League with Verona and, most of all, in the Lombard League (1164–1167) against Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa compelling Padua and Treviso to join: its podestà, Ezzelino II il Balbo, was captain of the league.


City on the Adige River in Veneto, Italy, with 258,031 inhabitants.

The Roman Ponte Pietra in Verona
Equestrian statue of Cangrande I
The Lion of Saint Mark, located in Piazza delle Erbe, the symbol of the Venetian Republic
The Arche scaligere, tombs of the ancient lords of Verona
Panoramic view of the city from Castel San Pietro
Palazzo Barbieri is Verona City Hall
Palazzo del Governo is the seat of the Province of Verona
The Ponte Scaligero, completed in 1356
Verona Arena
Piazza delle Erbe
Porta Borsari
Piazza dei Signori
San Zeno Basilica, like many other Veronese churches, is built with alternating layers of white stone and bricks
The balcony of Juliet's house
The Portoni della Bra
The Verona Cathedral
The Santa Maria Antica
The Sant'Anastasia
The San Giorgio in Braida
An ATV bus in Verona
Verona Porta Nuova railway station
Verona airport

In 1164 Verona joined with Vicenza, Padua and Treviso to create the Veronese League, which was integrated with the Lombard League in 1167 to battle against Frederick I Barbarossa.


City in the alpine Lombardy region of northern Italy, approximately 40 km northeast of Milan, and about 30 km from Switzerland, the alpine lakes Como and Iseo and 70 km (43 mi) from Garda and Maggiore.

The Città Alta
Bergamo Upper Town and Alpi Orobie from the airport
Lower City seen from Upper City
Walled city scheme
The Upper City
The Angelo Maj library
Bergamo Upper City, Lower City and Bergamo Hills
Neighborhoods of Bergamo
Gaetano Donizetti Theater

From the 11th century onwards, Bergamo was an independent commune, taking part in the Lombard League which defeated Frederick I Barbarossa in 1165.


Capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy.

The iconic Due Torri
Porta Maggiore, one of the twelve medieval city gates of Bologna
Depiction of a 14th-century fight between the Guelf and Ghibelline factions in Bologna, from the Croniche of Giovanni Sercambi of Lucca
Bologna in 1640
Engraving of the city of Bologna from Leandro Alberti's History of Bologna, 1590, showing the two surviving towers and several others
Piazza del Nettuno in 1855, looking towards Piazza Maggiore
Sappers of the 136 Indian Railway Maintenance Company repair some of the extensive damage to the railyards in 1945.
Aftermath of the 1980 terrorist bombing
Aerial photograph of Bologna (from East to West).
Matteo Lepore, mayor of Bologna since 2021
Fiera District, seat of the regional government of Emilia-Romagna
Panoramic view of central Bologna
Piazza Maggiore, with San Petronio Basilica, Palazzo dei Banchi and Palazzo del Podestà
The colourful open-air market of Via Pescherie Vecchie
Sanctuary of the Madonna di San Luca
The icon of the Madonna di San Luca
View from the top of the Basilica di San Petronio: the dome of Santuario di Santa Maria della Vita dominates the foreground; the Asinelli (higher) and Garisenda towers ("Due Torri") are seen on the right.
Unipol Tower, at 127 m, is the city's tallest building.
A Trolleybus of the urban trolleybus network managed by TPER, photographed in Via Saffi
The University of Bologna is the world's oldest institution of higher learning, founded in AD 1088.
Anatomical theatre of the Archiginnasio, dating from 1637
The International museum and library of music displays ancient musical instruments and unique musical scores from the 16th to the 20th centuries.
Façade of Arena del Sole theatre
Tagliatelle al ragù bolognese, as served in Bologna
The 32,000-capacity Stadio Renato Dall'Ara is the home of Bologna FC 1909.
Pope Benedict XIV, born in Bologna in 1675

However, when Frederick Barbarossa subsequently attempted to strike down the deal, Bologna joined the Lombard League, which then defeated the imperial armies at the Battle of Legnano and established an effective autonomy at the Peace of Constance in 1183.


City and comune in the Veneto region of northern Italy.

Gate San Tomaso, with the Lion of Saint Mark, emblem of the Venetian Republic
A bridge on the Sile river in Treviso
Tiramisù, a typical dessert from Treviso.

Treviso joined the Lombard League, and gained independence after the Peace of Constance (1183).

Reggio Emilia

City in northern Italy, in the Emilia-Romagna region.

Panorama with basilica della Ghiara.
Palazzo del Monte in Piazza del Duomo, with the Fountain of River Crostolo.
Piazza Prampolini.
The Baroque church of San Giorgio.
The "Tricolore's Room", in the Town Hall, is where for the first time the current Italian flag's three colours were adopted.
Villa Levi (a department of the University of Bologna).
Piazza San Prospero seen from the patron saint's basilica.
Tempio della Beata Vergine della Ghiara
Old town street
Palazzo Ducale

In 1167 it was a member of the Lombard League and took part in the Battle of Legnano.