Lombard League

Lombard standard bearer re-entering Milan in 1167 (the year of the League's foundation) after its destruction in 1162 by Emperor Frederick I. Bas-relief Porta Romana, Milan (1171)
Member cities of the first and second Lombard League.
Lombard milites depicted on the Porta Romana relief of 1171
A Bronze replica of the Peace of Constance in Konstanz. Illustrating the comunes of the Lombard League in 1183.
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Cortenuova (1237)
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Parma (1248)
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Fossalta (1249)

Medieval alliance formed in 1167, supported by the popes, to counter the attempts by the Hohenstaufen Holy Roman emperors to assert influence over the Kingdom of Italy as a part of the Holy Roman Empire.

- Lombard League
Lombard standard bearer re-entering Milan in 1167 (the year of the League's foundation) after its destruction in 1162 by Emperor Frederick I. Bas-relief Porta Romana, Milan (1171)

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A golden bust of Frederick I, given to his godfather Count Otto of Cappenberg in 1171. It was used as a reliquary in Cappenberg Abbey and is said in the deed of the gift to have been made "in the likeness of the emperor".

Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor

The Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 until his death 35 years later.

The Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 until his death 35 years later.

A golden bust of Frederick I, given to his godfather Count Otto of Cappenberg in 1171. It was used as a reliquary in Cappenberg Abbey and is said in the deed of the gift to have been made "in the likeness of the emperor".
Crusaders besieging Damascus in 1148
13th-century stained glass image of Frederick I, Strasbourg Cathedral
Penny or denier with Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, struck in Nijmegen
Wax seal of Frederick I, used in the imperial residence of Pfalz Wimpfen
Frederick's so-called baptismal cup, silver, partly gilded, Aachen 1160
The Barbarossa Chandelier in Aachen Cathedral was donated by Frederick sometime after 1165 as a tribute to Charlemagne.
Frederick Barbarossa, middle, flanked by two of his children, King Henry VI (left) and Duke Frederick VI (right). From the Historia Welforum
The now secularised St Peter's Church at Petersberg Citadel, Erfurt, where Henry the Lion submitted to Barbarossa in 1181
Path of the Third Crusade, Frederick Barbarossa's path in red
Frederick Barbarossa depicted during the Third Crusade
Barbarossa drowns in the Saleph, from the Gotha Manuscript of the Saxon World Chronicle
A German expedition led by Johann Nepomuk Sepp to excavate the bones from the ruins of the Crusader Cathedral of Tyre, 1879
The Frederick Barbarossa Memorial, near Silifke in Mersin Province, southern Turkey. The text explains in Turkish and German how Frederick drowned nearby.
Frederick Barbarossa as a crusader, miniature from a copy of the Historia Hierosolymitana, 1188
Frederick sends out the boy to see whether the ravens still fly.

) He was opposed by the pro-papal Lombard League (now joined by Venice, Sicily and Constantinople), which had previously formed to stand against him.

The defense of the Carroccio during the battle of Legnano (by Amos Cassioli, 1860)

Battle of Legnano

The defense of the Carroccio during the battle of Legnano (by Amos Cassioli, 1860)
Frederick Barbarossa in a miniature of 1188
Pope Alexander III
The Milanese in the presence of Frederick Barbarossa ask for clemency after the surrender of the city (1162)
Pontida: plaque commemorating the constitutive oath of the Lombard League (1167).
Frederick Barbarossa kneeling before Henry the Lion at Chiavenna
The sepulcher and a copy of the cross by Ariberto d'Intimiano, in Milan Cathedral.
The Olona River at the Visconteo castle in Legnano
A video showing the phases of the battle of Legnano, highlighting the troop movements
Cascina Brughetto in Sacconago
The Carroccio during the battle of Legnano in a painting by Amos Cassioli
The ancient medieval church of San Giorgio in a watercolor by Giuseppe Pirovano of 1892
The Carroccio with the cross of Aribert in a miniature of the 11th century
The soldiers of the Lombard League who seek in vain the dead body of Frederick Barbarossa on a 1913 illustration
View of the Parco castello in Legnano. In the background you can see the Legnanese quarter of Costa San Giorgio, while in the foreground you can see part of the escarpment that may have been the scene of the battle of Legnano
The church of San Martino in Legnano, which dominates a slope that slopes down towards the Olona, another possible place where the battle of Legnano may have been fought
Konstanz: commemorative plaque of the peace treaty
Il Monument to the Warrior of Legnano, often mistakenly associated with Alberto da Giussano

The Battle of Legnano was a battle between the imperial army of Frederick Barbarossa and the troops of the Lombard League on May 29, 1176, near the town of Legnano in present-day Lombardy, in Italy.

A gold augustalis bearing Frederick's effigy

Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor

King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.

King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.

A gold augustalis bearing Frederick's effigy
Arms of the House of Hohenstaufen.
Arms of the House of Hohenstaufen as Holy Roman Emperor.
Frederick's birth in Jesi (illustration in Giovanni Villani's Nuova Cronica, ca. 1348)
Seals used by Frederick as Emperor (ed. Otto Posse 1909):
1: first imperial seal (1221–1225),
2: second imperial seal (1226),
3: third imperial seal, addition of the title of King of Jerusalem (1226–1250)
4: seal used in 1221 and 1225,
5: first seal as King of Jerusalem (1233).
An augustale coin of Frederick II, from the Messina mint of Sicily, struck some time after 1231
Frederick II (left) meets Al-Kamil (right). Nuova Cronica, c. 1348.
A statue of Frederick II from the Black Tower of Regensburg, c. 1280–1290.
The victorious Battle of Cortenuova against the 2nd Lombard League (1237), Nuova Cronica (c. 1348).
Frederick II's troops paid with leather coins during the sieges of Brescia and Faenza, Nuova Cronica (c. 1348).
Battle of Giglio, against Gregory IX (1241), miniature in Chronica Maiora (1259).
Contemporary bust of Frederick II in Barletta
Castel del Monte, in Andria, Apulia, Italy.
Frederick II being excommunicated by Pope Innocent IV
The porphyry sarcophagus of Frederick II in the Cathedral of Palermo
A 1781 picture showing the mummified corpse of Frederick II in Palermo
Stained glass windows from the Strasbourg Cathedral, Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France, dated circa 1210–1270, depicting emperors of the Holy Roman Empire: Philip of Swabia, Henry IV, Henry V, and Frederick II

Those assembled responded with the reformation of the Lombard League, which had already defeated his grandfather Frederick Barbarossa in the 12th century, and again Milan was chosen as the league's leader.

Padua

City and comune in Veneto, northern Italy.

City and comune in Veneto, northern Italy.

Remnants of Padua's Roman amphitheatre wall
The Botanical Garden of Padova today; in the background, the Basilica of Sant'Antonio
Tomb of Antenor
The unfinished façade of Padua Cathedral
Clock tower and Lion of St. Mark, symbol of the Serenissima Repubblic
Last Judgment by Giotto, part of the Scrovegni Chapel.
Palazzo della Ragione
Botanical Garden (Orto Botanico).
Street tram in Padua
This tempera, Two Christians before the Judges, hangs in the city's Cathedral.
The apse area of Santa Sofia.
The "Gran Guardia" loggia
Prato della Valle (detail)
Loggia Amulea, as seen from Prato della Valle
Torre degli Anziani as seen from Piazza della Frutta
The Astronomical clock as seen from Piazza dei Signori

The temporary success of the Lombard League helped to strengthen the towns.

Northern Italy

Geographical and cultural region in the northern part of Italy.

Geographical and cultural region in the northern part of Italy.

Ancient peoples of Northern Italy, with Celtic peoples shown in blue.
Migration of the Lombards towards Northern Italy
Member cities of the first and second Lombard League.
Northern Italy after the Peace of Lodi
The Iron Crown of Lombardy, for centuries a symbol of the Kings of Italy
Anti-Fascist Partisans in the streets of Bologna after the general insurrection of April 1945
The Alps in Val Maira, Province of Cuneo
Farming landscape in the Po Plain at Sant'Agata Bolognese
Alpine lakes like Lake Garda are characterised by warmer microclimates than the surrounding areas
Fog on the Secchia River near Modena. Fog is a common occurrence in the Po Plain
Languages and regional varieties in Italy
Milan
Genoa
Turin

This process led to the creation of different Lombard Leagues formed by allied cities of Lombardy that defeated the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick I, at Legnano, and his grandson Frederick II, at Parma, and becoming virtually independent from the German emperors.

Verona

City on the Adige River in Veneto, Italy, with 258,031 inhabitants.

City on the Adige River in Veneto, Italy, with 258,031 inhabitants.

The Roman Ponte Pietra in Verona
Equestrian statue of Cangrande I
The Lion of Saint Mark, located in Piazza delle Erbe, the symbol of the Venetian Republic
The Arche scaligere, tombs of the ancient lords of Verona
Panoramic view of the city from Castel San Pietro
Palazzo Barbieri is Verona City Hall
Palazzo del Governo is the seat of the Province of Verona
The Ponte Scaligero, completed in 1356
Verona Arena
Piazza delle Erbe
Porta Borsari
Piazza dei Signori
San Zeno Basilica, like many other Veronese churches, is built with alternating layers of white stone and bricks
The balcony of Juliet's house
The Portoni della Bra
The Verona Cathedral
The Santa Maria Antica
The Sant'Anastasia
The San Giorgio in Braida
An ATV bus in Verona
Verona Porta Nuova railway station
Verona airport

In 1164 Verona joined with Vicenza, Padua and Treviso to create the Veronese League, which was integrated with the Lombard League in 1167 to battle against Frederick I Barbarossa.

Cremona

City and comune in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left bank of the Po river in the middle of the Pianura Padana (Po Valley).

City and comune in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left bank of the Po river in the middle of the Pianura Padana (Po Valley).

City coat of arms of Cremona on the town hall
Cremona in the 17th century
Po river in Cremona in the 18th century
The Cathedral and the Baptistery of Cremona
Statue of Stradivari in Stradivari Square
Lady Blunt Stradivarius
City hall (Palazzo del Comune)
The Loggia dei Militi
Violin shop
Astronomical clock on the Torrazzo belltower

However, in 1167 the city changed sides and joined the Lombard League.

Piacenza

City and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy, the capital of the eponymous province.

City and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy, the capital of the eponymous province.

Mosaic of the old city Coat of Arms
Two gold Doppie (1626) depicting Odoardo Farnese (obv) and Placentia floret ("Piacenza flourishes")(rev).
The French Pass the River Po at Piacenza, by Giuseppe Pietro Bagetti, 1803.
Piacenza railway bridge over Po river in a 19th-century image.
Piazza Cavalli and the façade of Palazzo Comunale il Gotico''.
Façade of the Cathedral.
Ranuccio I Farnese monument in Piacenza
Via XX Settembre shopping street.
Basilica of Sant'Antonino, Piacenza, patron of Piacenza.
The Renaissance church of San Sisto.
Teatro Municipale (Piacenza)

From 1126, Piacenza was a free commune and an important member of the Lombard League.

16th century woodcut of Ezzelino III da Romano.

Ezzelino III da Romano

Italian feudal lord, a member of the Ezzelino family, in the March of Treviso (in modern Veneto).

Italian feudal lord, a member of the Ezzelino family, in the March of Treviso (in modern Veneto).

16th century woodcut of Ezzelino III da Romano.
Activities of Ezzelino III da Romano.

At this time control over Verona was important because Frederick II was in conflict with the Second Lombard League, an alliance of cities in Northern Italy.

SOLE
Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes.

Medieval commune

Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.

Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.

SOLE
Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes.

Milan led the Lombard cities against the Holy Roman Emperors and defeated them, gaining independence (battles of Legnano, 1176, and Parma, 1248).