A report on Northern Italy and Lombard League

Lombard standard bearer re-entering Milan in 1167 (the year of the League's foundation) after its destruction in 1162 by Emperor Frederick I. Bas-relief Porta Romana, Milan (1171)
Member cities of the first and second Lombard League.
Ancient peoples of Northern Italy, with Celtic peoples shown in blue.
Lombard milites depicted on the Porta Romana relief of 1171
Migration of the Lombards towards Northern Italy
A Bronze replica of the Peace of Constance in Konstanz. Illustrating the comunes of the Lombard League in 1183.
Member cities of the first and second Lombard League.
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Cortenuova (1237)
Northern Italy after the Peace of Lodi
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Parma (1248)
The Iron Crown of Lombardy, for centuries a symbol of the Kings of Italy
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Fossalta (1249)
Anti-Fascist Partisans in the streets of Bologna after the general insurrection of April 1945
The Alps in Val Maira, Province of Cuneo
Farming landscape in the Po Plain at Sant'Agata Bolognese
Alpine lakes like Lake Garda are characterised by warmer microclimates than the surrounding areas
Fog on the Secchia River near Modena. Fog is a common occurrence in the Po Plain
Languages and regional varieties in Italy
Milan
Genoa
Turin

At its apex, it included most of the cities of Northern Italy, but its membership changed with time.

- Lombard League

This process led to the creation of different Lombard Leagues formed by allied cities of Lombardy that defeated the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick I, at Legnano, and his grandson Frederick II, at Parma, and becoming virtually independent from the German emperors.

- Northern Italy

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The defense of the Carroccio during the battle of Legnano (by Amos Cassioli, 1860)

Battle of Legnano

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The defense of the Carroccio during the battle of Legnano (by Amos Cassioli, 1860)
Frederick Barbarossa in a miniature of 1188
Pope Alexander III
The Milanese in the presence of Frederick Barbarossa ask for clemency after the surrender of the city (1162)
Pontida: plaque commemorating the constitutive oath of the Lombard League (1167).
Frederick Barbarossa kneeling before Henry the Lion at Chiavenna
The sepulcher and a copy of the cross by Ariberto d'Intimiano, in Milan Cathedral.
The Olona River at the Visconteo castle in Legnano
A video showing the phases of the battle of Legnano, highlighting the troop movements
Cascina Brughetto in Sacconago
The Carroccio during the battle of Legnano in a painting by Amos Cassioli
The ancient medieval church of San Giorgio in a watercolor by Giuseppe Pirovano of 1892
The Carroccio with the cross of Aribert in a miniature of the 11th century
The soldiers of the Lombard League who seek in vain the dead body of Frederick Barbarossa on a 1913 illustration
View of the Parco castello in Legnano. In the background you can see the Legnanese quarter of Costa San Giorgio, while in the foreground you can see part of the escarpment that may have been the scene of the battle of Legnano
The church of San Martino in Legnano, which dominates a slope that slopes down towards the Olona, another possible place where the battle of Legnano may have been fought
Konstanz: commemorative plaque of the peace treaty
Il Monument to the Warrior of Legnano, often mistakenly associated with Alberto da Giussano

The Battle of Legnano was a battle between the imperial army of Frederick Barbarossa and the troops of the Lombard League on May 29, 1176, near the town of Legnano in present-day Lombardy, in Italy.

The battle was crucial in the long war waged by the Holy Roman Empire in an attempt to assert its power over the municipalities of Northern Italy, which decided to set aside their mutual rivalries and join in a military alliance symbolically led by Pope Alexander III, the Lombard League.

Padua

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City and comune in Veneto, northern Italy.

City and comune in Veneto, northern Italy.

Remnants of Padua's Roman amphitheatre wall
The Botanical Garden of Padova today; in the background, the Basilica of Sant'Antonio
Tomb of Antenor
The unfinished façade of Padua Cathedral
Clock tower and Lion of St. Mark, symbol of the Serenissima Repubblic
Last Judgment by Giotto, part of the Scrovegni Chapel.
Palazzo della Ragione
Botanical Garden (Orto Botanico).
Street tram in Padua
This tempera, Two Christians before the Judges, hangs in the city's Cathedral.
The apse area of Santa Sofia.
The "Gran Guardia" loggia
Prato della Valle (detail)
Loggia Amulea, as seen from Prato della Valle
Torre degli Anziani as seen from Piazza della Frutta
The Astronomical clock as seen from Piazza dei Signori

The temporary success of the Lombard League helped to strengthen the towns.

Annexed to Italy during 1866, Padua was at the centre of the poorest area of Northern Italy, as Veneto was until the 1960s.

SOLE
Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes.

Medieval commune

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Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.

Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.

SOLE
Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes.

In central and northern Italy, and in Provence and Septimania, most of the old Roman cities had survived—even if grass grew in their streets—largely as administrative centers for a diocese or for the local representative of a distant kingly or imperial power.

Milan led the Lombard cities against the Holy Roman Emperors and defeated them, gaining independence (battles of Legnano, 1176, and Parma, 1248).

Verona

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The Roman Ponte Pietra in Verona
Equestrian statue of Cangrande I
The Lion of Saint Mark, located in Piazza delle Erbe, the symbol of the Venetian Republic
The Arche scaligere, tombs of the ancient lords of Verona
Panoramic view of the city from Castel San Pietro
Palazzo Barbieri is Verona City Hall
Palazzo del Governo is the seat of the Province of Verona
The Ponte Scaligero, completed in 1356
Verona Arena
Piazza delle Erbe
Porta Borsari
Piazza dei Signori
San Zeno Basilica, like many other Veronese churches, is built with alternating layers of white stone and bricks
The balcony of Juliet's house
The Portoni della Bra
The Verona Cathedral
The Santa Maria Antica
The Sant'Anastasia
The San Giorgio in Braida
An ATV bus in Verona
Verona Porta Nuova railway station
Verona airport

Verona (, ; Verona or Veròna) is a city on the Adige River in Veneto, Italy, with 258,031 inhabitants.

In 1164 Verona joined with Vicenza, Padua and Treviso to create the Veronese League, which was integrated with the Lombard League in 1167 to battle against Frederick I Barbarossa.

Bologna

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The iconic Due Torri
Porta Maggiore, one of the twelve medieval city gates of Bologna
Depiction of a 14th-century fight between the Guelf and Ghibelline factions in Bologna, from the Croniche of Giovanni Sercambi of Lucca
Bologna in 1640
Engraving of the city of Bologna from Leandro Alberti's History of Bologna, 1590, showing the two surviving towers and several others
Piazza del Nettuno in 1855, looking towards Piazza Maggiore
Sappers of the 136 Indian Railway Maintenance Company repair some of the extensive damage to the railyards in 1945.
Aftermath of the 1980 terrorist bombing
Aerial photograph of Bologna (from East to West).
Matteo Lepore, mayor of Bologna since 2021
Fiera District, seat of the regional government of Emilia-Romagna
Panoramic view of central Bologna
Piazza Maggiore, with San Petronio Basilica, Palazzo dei Banchi and Palazzo del Podestà
The colourful open-air market of Via Pescherie Vecchie
Sanctuary of the Madonna di San Luca
The icon of the Madonna di San Luca
View from the top of the Basilica di San Petronio: the dome of Santuario di Santa Maria della Vita dominates the foreground; the Asinelli (higher) and Garisenda towers ("Due Torri") are seen on the right.
Unipol Tower, at 127 m, is the city's tallest building.
A Trolleybus of the urban trolleybus network managed by TPER, photographed in Via Saffi
The University of Bologna is the world's oldest institution of higher learning, founded in AD 1088.
Anatomical theatre of the Archiginnasio, dating from 1637
The International museum and library of music displays ancient musical instruments and unique musical scores from the 16th to the 20th centuries.
Façade of Arena del Sole theatre
Tagliatelle al ragù bolognese, as served in Bologna
The 32,000-capacity Stadio Renato Dall'Ara is the home of Bologna FC 1909.
Pope Benedict XIV, born in Bologna in 1675

Bologna is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy.

However, when Frederick Barbarossa subsequently attempted to strike down the deal, Bologna joined the Lombard League, which then defeated the imperial armies at the Battle of Legnano and established an effective autonomy at the Peace of Constance in 1183.

Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire)

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One of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy.

One of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy.

The Kingdom of Italy within the Holy Roman Empire and within Europe in the early 11th century.
The Iron Crown of Lombardy, now at Monza Cathedral
The Kingdom of Italy within the Holy Roman Empire and within Europe in the early 11th century.
Imperial Italy (outlined in red) in the 12th and 13th centuries
Imperial Italy within the Holy Roman Empire in 1356

It originally comprised large parts of northern and central Italy.

The Lombard League was the most famous example of this situation; though not a declared separatist movement, it openly challenged the emperor's claim to power.

Bergamo

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City in the alpine Lombardy region of northern Italy, approximately 40 km northeast of Milan, and about 30 km from Switzerland, the alpine lakes Como and Iseo and 70 km (43 mi) from Garda and Maggiore.

City in the alpine Lombardy region of northern Italy, approximately 40 km northeast of Milan, and about 30 km from Switzerland, the alpine lakes Como and Iseo and 70 km (43 mi) from Garda and Maggiore.

The Città Alta
Bergamo Upper Town and Alpi Orobie from the airport
Lower City seen from Upper City
Walled city scheme
The Upper City
The Angelo Maj library
Bergamo Upper City, Lower City and Bergamo Hills
Neighborhoods of Bergamo
Gaetano Donizetti Theater

From the 6th century Bergamo was the seat of one of the most important Lombard duchies of northern Italy, together with Brescia, Trento, and Cividale del Friuli: its first Lombard duke was Wallaris.

From the 11th century onwards, Bergamo was an independent commune, taking part in the Lombard League which defeated Frederick I Barbarossa in 1165.