A report on Padua and Lombard League

Lombard standard bearer re-entering Milan in 1167 (the year of the League's foundation) after its destruction in 1162 by Emperor Frederick I. Bas-relief Porta Romana, Milan (1171)
Member cities of the first and second Lombard League.
Remnants of Padua's Roman amphitheatre wall
Lombard milites depicted on the Porta Romana relief of 1171
The Botanical Garden of Padova today; in the background, the Basilica of Sant'Antonio
A Bronze replica of the Peace of Constance in Konstanz. Illustrating the comunes of the Lombard League in 1183.
Tomb of Antenor
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Cortenuova (1237)
The unfinished façade of Padua Cathedral
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Parma (1248)
Clock tower and Lion of St. Mark, symbol of the Serenissima Repubblic
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Fossalta (1249)
Last Judgment by Giotto, part of the Scrovegni Chapel.
Palazzo della Ragione
Botanical Garden (Orto Botanico).
Street tram in Padua
This tempera, Two Christians before the Judges, hangs in the city's Cathedral.
The apse area of Santa Sofia.
The "Gran Guardia" loggia
Prato della Valle (detail)
Loggia Amulea, as seen from Prato della Valle
Torre degli Anziani as seen from Piazza della Frutta
The Astronomical clock as seen from Piazza dei Signori

The association succeeded the Veronese League, established in 1164 by Verona, Padua, Vicenza, and the Republic of Venice, after Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa had claimed direct Imperial control over Italy at the 1158 Diet of Roncaglia and began to replace the podestà magistrates by his own commissioners.

- Lombard League

The temporary success of the Lombard League helped to strengthen the towns.

- Padua

7 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Verona

3 links

City on the Adige River in Veneto, Italy, with 258,031 inhabitants.

City on the Adige River in Veneto, Italy, with 258,031 inhabitants.

The Roman Ponte Pietra in Verona
Equestrian statue of Cangrande I
The Lion of Saint Mark, located in Piazza delle Erbe, the symbol of the Venetian Republic
The Arche scaligere, tombs of the ancient lords of Verona
Panoramic view of the city from Castel San Pietro
Palazzo Barbieri is Verona City Hall
Palazzo del Governo is the seat of the Province of Verona
The Ponte Scaligero, completed in 1356
Verona Arena
Piazza delle Erbe
Porta Borsari
Piazza dei Signori
San Zeno Basilica, like many other Veronese churches, is built with alternating layers of white stone and bricks
The balcony of Juliet's house
The Portoni della Bra
The Verona Cathedral
The Santa Maria Antica
The Sant'Anastasia
The San Giorgio in Braida
An ATV bus in Verona
Verona Porta Nuova railway station
Verona airport

In 1164 Verona joined with Vicenza, Padua and Treviso to create the Veronese League, which was integrated with the Lombard League in 1167 to battle against Frederick I Barbarossa.

16th century woodcut of Ezzelino III da Romano.

Ezzelino III da Romano

3 links

Italian feudal lord, a member of the Ezzelino family, in the March of Treviso (in modern Veneto).

Italian feudal lord, a member of the Ezzelino family, in the March of Treviso (in modern Veneto).

16th century woodcut of Ezzelino III da Romano.
Activities of Ezzelino III da Romano.

He was a close ally of the emperor Frederick II (r. 1220–1250), and ruled Verona, Vicenza and Padua for almost two decades.

At this time control over Verona was important because Frederick II was in conflict with the Second Lombard League, an alliance of cities in Northern Italy.

Vicenza

2 links

City in northeastern Italy.

City in northeastern Italy.

Piazza dei Signori
Basilica Palladiana
Piazza dei Signori
Basilica Palladiana with clock tower
A night view of the Basilica Palladiana
The three-dimensional stage of the Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza
Palazzo Thiene Bonin Longare, designed by Palladio and built by Vincenzo Scamozzi
Porta Castello Tower
Plaque for Vicenza in the UNESCO World Heritage List
A plate of Baccalà alla vicentina, a typical dish of the city

The citizens of Vicetia received Roman citizenship and were inscribed into the Roman tribe Romilia in 49 BC. The city was known for its agriculture, brickworks, marble quarry, and wool industry and had some importance as a way-station on the important road from Mediolanum (Milan) to Aquileia, near Tergeste (Trieste), but it was overshadowed by its neighbor Patavium (Padua).

It took an active part in the League with Verona and, most of all, in the Lombard League (1164–1167) against Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa compelling Padua and Treviso to join: its podestà, Ezzelino II il Balbo, was captain of the league.

Northern Italy

2 links

Geographical and cultural region in the northern part of Italy.

Geographical and cultural region in the northern part of Italy.

Ancient peoples of Northern Italy, with Celtic peoples shown in blue.
Migration of the Lombards towards Northern Italy
Member cities of the first and second Lombard League.
Northern Italy after the Peace of Lodi
The Iron Crown of Lombardy, for centuries a symbol of the Kings of Italy
Anti-Fascist Partisans in the streets of Bologna after the general insurrection of April 1945
The Alps in Val Maira, Province of Cuneo
Farming landscape in the Po Plain at Sant'Agata Bolognese
Alpine lakes like Lake Garda are characterised by warmer microclimates than the surrounding areas
Fog on the Secchia River near Modena. Fog is a common occurrence in the Po Plain
Languages and regional varieties in Italy
Milan
Genoa
Turin

This process led to the creation of different Lombard Leagues formed by allied cities of Lombardy that defeated the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick I, at Legnano, and his grandson Frederick II, at Parma, and becoming virtually independent from the German emperors.

Turin and Milan are also at the top of the European ranking – 3rd and 5th respectively – in terms of increased mortality from nitrogen dioxide, a gas that derives mainly from traffic and in particular from diesel vehicles, while Verona, Treviso, Padova, Como and Venice rank eleventh, fourteenth, fifteenth, seventeenth and twentythird respectively.

A gold augustalis bearing Frederick's effigy

Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor

1 links

King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.

King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.

A gold augustalis bearing Frederick's effigy
A gold augustalis bearing Frederick's effigy
Arms of the House of Hohenstaufen.
Arms of the House of Hohenstaufen as Holy Roman Emperor.
Frederick's birth in Jesi (illustration in Giovanni Villani's Nuova Cronica, ca. 1348)
Seals used by Frederick as Emperor (ed. Otto Posse 1909):
1: first imperial seal (1221–1225),
2: second imperial seal (1226),
3: third imperial seal, addition of the title of King of Jerusalem (1226–1250)
4: seal used in 1221 and 1225,
5: first seal as King of Jerusalem (1233).
An augustale coin of Frederick II, from the Messina mint of Sicily, struck some time after 1231
Frederick II (left) meets Al-Kamil (right). Nuova Cronica, c. 1348.
A statue of Frederick II from the Black Tower of Regensburg, c. 1280–1290.
The victorious Battle of Cortenuova against the 2nd Lombard League (1237), Nuova Cronica (c. 1348).
Frederick II's troops paid with leather coins during the sieges of Brescia and Faenza, Nuova Cronica (c. 1348).
Battle of Giglio, against Gregory IX (1241), miniature in Chronica Maiora (1259).
Contemporary bust of Frederick II in Barletta
Castel del Monte, in Andria, Apulia, Italy.
Frederick II being excommunicated by Pope Innocent IV
The porphyry sarcophagus of Frederick II in the Cathedral of Palermo
A 1781 picture showing the mummified corpse of Frederick II in Palermo
Stained glass windows from the Strasbourg Cathedral, Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France, dated circa 1210–1270, depicting emperors of the Holy Roman Empire: Philip of Swabia, Henry IV, Henry V, and Frederick II

Those assembled responded with the reformation of the Lombard League, which had already defeated his grandfather Frederick Barbarossa in the 12th century, and again Milan was chosen as the league's leader.

Frederick received the news of his excommunication by Gregory IX in the first months of 1239 while his court was in Padua The emperor responded by expelling the Franciscans and the Dominicans from Lombardy and electing his son Enzo as Imperial vicar for Northern Italy.

SOLE
Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes.

Medieval commune

1 links

Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.

Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.

SOLE
Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes.

Milan led the Lombard cities against the Holy Roman Emperors and defeated them, gaining independence (battles of Legnano, 1176, and Parma, 1248).

Cities such as Florence, Parma, Ferrara, Verona, Padua, Lucca, Siena, Mantua and others were able to create stable states at the expenses of their neighbors, some of which lasted until modern times.

Treviso

0 links

City and comune in the Veneto region of northern Italy.

City and comune in the Veneto region of northern Italy.

Gate San Tomaso, with the Lion of Saint Mark, emblem of the Venetian Republic
A bridge on the Sile river in Treviso
Tiramisù, a typical dessert from Treviso.

Treviso joined the Lombard League, and gained independence after the Peace of Constance (1183).

Treviso and its satellite cities, including Castelfranco Veneto (founded by the Trevigiani in contraposition to Padua), had become attractive to neighbouring powers, including the da Carrara and Scaligeri.