A report on Lombard League

Lombard standard bearer re-entering Milan in 1167 (the year of the League's foundation) after its destruction in 1162 by Emperor Frederick I. Bas-relief Porta Romana, Milan (1171)
Member cities of the first and second Lombard League.
Lombard milites depicted on the Porta Romana relief of 1171
A Bronze replica of the Peace of Constance in Konstanz. Illustrating the comunes of the Lombard League in 1183.
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Cortenuova (1237)
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Parma (1248)
Medieval miniature depicting the Battle of Fossalta (1249)

Medieval alliance formed in 1167, supported by the popes, to counter the attempts by the Hohenstaufen Holy Roman emperors to assert influence over the Kingdom of Italy as a part of the Holy Roman Empire.

- Lombard League
Lombard standard bearer re-entering Milan in 1167 (the year of the League's foundation) after its destruction in 1162 by Emperor Frederick I. Bas-relief Porta Romana, Milan (1171)

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Treviso

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City and comune in the Veneto region of northern Italy.

City and comune in the Veneto region of northern Italy.

Gate San Tomaso, with the Lion of Saint Mark, emblem of the Venetian Republic
A bridge on the Sile river in Treviso
Tiramisù, a typical dessert from Treviso.

Treviso joined the Lombard League, and gained independence after the Peace of Constance (1183).

Reggio Emilia

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City in northern Italy, in the Emilia-Romagna region.

City in northern Italy, in the Emilia-Romagna region.

Panorama with basilica della Ghiara.
Palazzo del Monte in Piazza del Duomo, with the Fountain of River Crostolo.
Piazza Prampolini.
The Baroque church of San Giorgio.
The "Tricolore's Room", in the Town Hall, is where for the first time the current Italian flag's three colours were adopted.
Villa Levi (a department of the University of Bologna).
Piazza San Prospero seen from the patron saint's basilica.
Tempio della Beata Vergine della Ghiara
Old town street
Palazzo Ducale

In 1167 it was a member of the Lombard League and took part in the Battle of Legnano.

Diet of Roncaglia

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Imperial Diet, a general assembly of the nobles and ecclesiasts of the Holy Roman Empire and representatives of Northern Italian cities held in 1154 and in 1158 by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa to deliberate on the matter of sovereignty of his subjects, which was being challenged by the economical and political flourishing of the northern Italian cities and free comunes, including the cities of Chieri, Asti, Tortona, but most importantly Milan.

Imperial Diet, a general assembly of the nobles and ecclesiasts of the Holy Roman Empire and representatives of Northern Italian cities held in 1154 and in 1158 by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa to deliberate on the matter of sovereignty of his subjects, which was being challenged by the economical and political flourishing of the northern Italian cities and free comunes, including the cities of Chieri, Asti, Tortona, but most importantly Milan.

The decisive battle in the continuing struggle was the Battle of Legnano in 1176, where Frederick was defeated by the Lombard League, and later forced to renege his rights of sovereignty south of the Alps, in the Kingdom of Italy.

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Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes.

Medieval commune

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Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.

Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.

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Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes.

Milan led the Lombard cities against the Holy Roman Emperors and defeated them, gaining independence (battles of Legnano, 1176, and Parma, 1248).

Pontida

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Comune (municipality) in the Province of Bergamo in the Italian region of Lombardy, located about 40 km northeast of Milan and about 13 km northwest of Bergamo.

Comune (municipality) in the Province of Bergamo in the Italian region of Lombardy, located about 40 km northeast of Milan and about 13 km northwest of Bergamo.

Pontida's main claim to historical renown is due to the Oath of Pontida, signed there in 1167 and marking the foundation of the Lombard League, which nine years later would go on to defeat Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa at the Battle of Legnano.

Gregory IX in a manuscript miniature c. 1270

Pope Gregory IX

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Bishop of Rome and hence head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 March 1227 till his death.

Bishop of Rome and hence head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 March 1227 till his death.

Gregory IX in a manuscript miniature c. 1270

Gregory IX and Frederick came to a truce, but when Frederick defeated the Lombard League in 1239, the possibility that he might dominate all of Italy, surrounding the Papal States, became a very real threat.