Lombard possessions in Italy: the Lombard Kingdom (Neustria, Austria and Tuscia) and the Lombard Duchies of Spoleto and Benevento
Distribution of Langobardic burial fields at the Lower Elbe Lands (according to W. Wegewitz)
Lombard migration from Scandinavia
Lombard grave goods (6th-7th century), Milan, Lombardy
Plutei of Theodota, mid 8th century, Civic Museums of Pavia.
The Frankish Merovingian King Chlothar II in combat with the Lombards
King Liutprand (712-744) "was a zealous Catholic, generous and a great founder of monasteries"
Lombard Duchy of Benevento in the eighth century
Italy around the turn of the millennium, showing the Lombard states in the south on the eve of the arrival of the Normans.
The West-Germanic languages around the sixth century CE
The runic inscription from the Pforzen buckle may be the earliest written example of Lombardic language
Lombard warrior, bronze statue, 8th century, Pavia Civic Museums.
The Rule of Saint Benedict in Beneventan (i.e. Lombard) script
Church of Santa Sofia, Benevento
Lombard shield boss<BR>northern Italy, 7th century, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Lombard S-shaped fibula
A glass drinking horn from Castel Trosino
Lombard Goldblattkreuz
Lombard fibulae
Altar of Ratchis
8th-century Lombard sculpture depicting female martyrs, based on a Byzantine model. Tempietto Longobardo, Cividale del Friuli
Crypt of Sant'Eusebio, Pavia.

The Lombards or Langobards (Langobardi) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774, with origins near the Elbe in northern Germany and Scania in southern Sweden before the Migration Period.

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History of the Lombards

Chief work by Paul the Deacon, written in the late 8th century.

Salzburg manuscript
The 1878 edition of Bethmann and Waitz
Historia Langobardorum, 1480

The history covers the story of the Lombards from their mythical origins to the death of King Liutprand in 743, and contains much information about the Eastern Roman empire, the Franks, and others.


Early Germanic people.

Map of the Roman empire and contemporary indigenous Europe in AD 125, showing a proposed location of Heruli on the Danish islands.
Map of Scandza based upon one interpretation of Jordanes, with the Herulian homeland located in the south of Sweden or on the Danish isles.
The shield pattern of the Heruli seniores, a Late Roman military unit composed of Heruli.
Approximate territory under Hunnic control in 450 AD
Polities in southeastern Europe c.500 AD before the Lombard destruction of the Herulian kingdom

By 454, after the death of Attila, they established their own kingdom on the Middle Danube, and Heruli also participated in successive conquests of Italy by Odoacer, Theoderic the Great, Narses and probably also the Longobards.

Kingdom of the Lombards

The Lombard possessions in Italy:
The Lombard Kingdom (Neustria, Austria and Tuscia) and the Lombard Duchies of Spoleto and Benevento
Lombard rule at the death of Alboin (572)
Theudelinda in a fresco by Zavattari
The Lombard Kingdom with its three main areas: Neustria, Austria and Tuscia
The Lombard rule at the death of Rothari (652)
A coin of Cunipert (688-700), king of the Lombards, minted in Milan.
Gravestone of Cunipert, Pavia Civic Museums.
Lombard's Domains at Liutprand's death (744).
Gravestone of Liutprand, Pavia, San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro.
Lombards domains after the conquests of Aistulf (751)
Adalgis, defeated by Charlemagne, opts for exile.
Giulio Cesare Croce
Alessandro Manzoni in a portrait by Francesco Hayez

The Kingdom of the Lombards (Regnum Langobardorum; Regno dei Longobardi; Regn dei Lombards) also known as the Lombard Kingdom; later the Kingdom of (all) Italy (Regnum totius Italiae), was an early medieval state established by the Lombards, a Germanic people, on the Italian Peninsula in the latter part of the 6th century.


Woodcut vignette of Alboin in the 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle
The Vipava Valley in Slovenia, through which Alboin led the Lombards into Italy
A modern rendering of Alboin's entrance into Ticinum
The fatal banquet as painted by Peter Paul Rubens in 1615
Alboin is killed by Peredeo while Rosamund steals his sword, in a 19th-century painting by Charles Landseer
Lombard and Byzantine territories at Alboin's death (572)

Alboin (530s – 28 June 572) was king of the Lombards from about 560 until 572.

Migration Period

Period in European history marked by large-scale migrations that saw the fall of the Western Roman Empire and subsequent settlement of its former territories by various tribes.

A Migration Period Germanic gold bracteate depicting a bird, horse, and stylized human head with a Suebian knot.
Migration of early Slavs in Europe between the 5th–10th centuries.
Migration and settlement of the Bulgars during the 6th–7th centuries AD
Slavic fibula brooch made of copper dating back to the Migration Period, c. 600-650 AD

The first migrations of peoples were made by Germanic tribes such as the Goths (including the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths), the Vandals, the Anglo-Saxons, the Lombards, the Suebi, the Frisii, the Jutes, the Burgundians, the Alemanni, the Sciri and the Franks; they were later pushed westward by the Huns, the Avars, the Slavs and the Bulgars.

Norman conquest of southern Italy

The Norman conquest of southern Italy lasted from 999 to 1139, involving many battles and independent conquerors.

The Kingdom of Sicily (in green) in 1154, representing the extent of the Norman conquest in southern Italy over several decades of activity by independent adventurers
Map of Italy at the arrival of the Normans, who eventually conquered Sicily and all the territory on the mainland south of the Holy Roman Empire (the bold line), southern regions of the Papal States and the Duchy of Spoleto
The imprisonment of Pandulf IV of Capua, after Emperor Henry II's 1022 campaign
The stone castle at Melfi was constructed by the Normans where no fortress had previously stood. The present castle includes additions to a simple, rectangular Norman keep.
Battle plan of Civitate: Normans in red, papal coalition in blue
Roger I of Sicily at the 1063 battle of Cerami, victorious over 35,000 Saracens according to Goffredo Malaterra.
Roger I receiving the keys of Palermo in 1071
The Palazzo dei Normanni was a 9th-century Arab palace in Sicily, converted by the Normans into their governing castle.
Norman progress in Sicily during Robert's expeditions to the Balkans: Capua, Apulia, Calabria, and the County of Sicily are Norman. The Emirate of Sicily, the Duchy of Naples and lands in the Abruzzo (in the southern Duchy of Spoleto) are not yet conquered.
Woodcut illustration of Constance of Sicily, her husband Emperor Henry VI and her son Frederick II
Early Norman castle at Adrano

Itinerant Norman forces arrived in southern Italy as mercenaries in the service of Lombard and Byzantine factions, communicating news swiftly back home about opportunities in the Mediterranean.


King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and the first Holy Roman Emperor from 800.

A denarius of Charlemagne dated 812–814 with the inscription  (Karolus Imperator Augustus)
The Bust of Charlemagne, an idealised portrayal and reliquary said to contain Charlemagne's skull cap, is located at Aachen Cathedral Treasury, and can be regarded as the most famous depiction of the ruler.
Roman road connecting Tongeren to the Herstal region. Jupille and Herstal, near Liege, are located in the lower right corner
Moorish Hispania in 732
Charlemagne (left) and Pepin the Hunchback (10th-century copy of 9th-century original)
Charlemagne instructing his son Louis the Pious
The Frankish king Charlemagne was a devout Catholic and maintained a close relationship with the papacy throughout his life. In 772, when Pope Adrian I was threatened by invaders, the king rushed to Rome to provide assistance. Shown here, the pope asks Charlemagne for help at a meeting near Rome.
Harun al-Rashid receiving a delegation of Charlemagne in Baghdad, by Julius Köckert (1864)
Charlemagne's additions to the Frankish Kingdom
Charlemagne receiving the submission of Widukind at Paderborn in 785, painted c. 1840 by Ary Scheffer
Equestrian statue of Charlemagne by Agostino Cornacchini (1725), St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City.
Imperial Coronation of Charlemagne, by Friedrich Kaulbach, 1861
Pope Leo III, crowning Charlemagne from Chroniques de France ou de Saint Denis, vol. 1; France, second quarter of 14th century.
The Throne of Charlemagne and the subsequent German Kings in Aachen Cathedral, Germany
Coronation of Charlemagne, drawing by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld
Coronation of an idealised king, depicted in the Sacramentary of Charles the Bald (about 870)
The Coronation of Charlemagne, by assistants of Raphael, c. 1516–1517
Europe at the death of the Charlemagne 814.
Proserpina sarcophagus of Charlemagne in the Aachen Cathedral Treasury
A portion of the 814 death shroud of Charlemagne. It represents a quadriga and was manufactured in Constantinople. Musée de Cluny, Paris.
Frederick II's gold and silver casket for Charlemagne, the Karlsschrein
Monogram of Charlemagne, including signum manus, from the subscription of a royal diploma: Signum (monogr.: KAROLVS) Karoli gloriosissimi regis
Denier from the era of Charlemagne, Tours, 793–812
Charlemagne in a contemporary sketch
The privileges of Charlemagne at the Modena Cathedral (containing the monogram of Charlemagne), dated 782
Charlemagne's chapel at Aachen Cathedral
Page from the Lorsch Gospels of Charlemagne's reign
13th-century stained glass depiction of Charlemagne, Strasbourg Cathedral
The Carolingian-era equestrian statuette thought to represent Charlemagne (from Metz Cathedral, now in the Louvre)
Later depiction of Charlemagne in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France
One of a chain of Middle Welsh legends about Charlemagne: Ystorya de Carolo Magno from the Red Book of Hergest (Jesus College, Oxford, MS 111), 14th century
Emperor Charlemagne, by Albrecht Dürer, 1511–1513, Germanisches Nationalmuseum

As sole ruler, he continued his father's policy towards protection of the papacy and became its sole defender, removing the Lombards from power in northern Italy and leading an incursion into Muslim Spain.


The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were a Roman-era Germanic people.

The Mausoleum of Theodoric in Ravenna, Italy
Ostrogothic bow-fibulae (c. 500) from Emilia-Romagna, Italy
Map of the Gothic migrations and kingdoms
Europe in 230 AD
Gothic raids in the 3rd century
Europe in 305 AD
Routes taken by Germanic invaders during the Migration Period
Barbarian kingdoms and tribes after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476
Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy
Mosaic depicting the palace of Theodoric the Great in his palace chapel of San Apollinare Nuovo
Coin of Theodahad (534-536), minted in Rome – he wears the barbaric moustache.
Totila razes the walls of Florence: illumination from the Chigi manuscript of Villani's Cronica
Ostrogoth ear jewels, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Possible map of Scandza based on Jordanes' work

Any remaining Ostrogoths in Italy were absorbed into the Lombards, who established a kingdom in Italy in 568.


One of the twenty administrative regions of Italy.

Pizzo Coca is the highest peak in the Bergamasque Alps (3,050 m)
The Adda, the longest river within the region and tributary of the Po
The Alpine ibex (Capra ibex)
Moraine of Lake Garda
The Rock Drawings in Valcamonica are among the largest collections of prehistoric petroglyphs in the world.
For centuries, the Iron Crown of Lombardy was used in the Coronation of the King of Italy.
Member cities of the first and second Lombard League
Mantua as it appeared in 1575.
The Consulta of the République cisalpine receives the First Consul on 26 January 1802
The Five Days of Milan, 1848.
A view over the business district of Milan: with a metropolitan area of 7.4m people, it is Italy's most important industrial, commercial and financial center.
Palazzo Lombardia, the main seat of the government of Lombardy.
The provinces/metropolitan cities of Lombardy
The Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
The Last Supper, Convent of Sta. Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy (1499), by Leonardo da Vinci
The Fortified City of Bergamo
Remains of Roman forum in Brescia
Lake Garda
Lake Como
The Floating Piers by Christo and Jeanne-Claude on Lake Iseo (2016)
Grana Padano DPO
Gorgonzola cheese takes its name from the homonymous city near Milan
Risotto alla milanese with ossobuco
Tortelli di zucca with butter and sage
The auditorium of the Teatro alla Scala in Milan.
Dolce & Gabbana is headquartered in Milan.
Grana Padano (granular cheese)
Mascarpone (cream cheese)
Gorgonzola (blue-veined cheese)
Bitto (hard cheese)
Provolone Valpadana (pasta filata cheese)
Bottle of Franciacorta
Franciacorta Ferghettina
AgustaWestland AW109
Aermacchi M-345
Beretta 92
Beretta ARX160
Beretta PMX
Tanfoglio Combat
OTO Melara RSS Valour 76mm
Iveco Daily VII.Generation
Iveco EuroCargo IV.Generation
Same Iron 210
Lamborghini R6.150
BCS Valiant
BCS Vivid
Moto Guzzi V85 TT (Piaggio)
Moto Guzzi V7 Classic (Piaggio)
MV Agusta Turismo Veloce 800

During the early Middle Ages, "Lombardy" referred to the Kingdom of the Lombards (Regnum Langobardorum), a kingdom ruled by the Germanic Lombards who had controlled most of Italy since their invasion of Byzantine Italy in 568.


Widely revered god in Germanic mythology.

Odin, in his guise as a wanderer, by Georg von Rosen (1886)
Woðinz (read from right to left), a probably authentic attestation of a pre-Viking Age form of Odin, on the Strängnäs stone.
One of the Torslunda plates. The figure to the left was cast with both eyes, but afterwards the right eye was removed.
The Old English rune ós, which is described in the Old English rune poem
Wodan and Frea look down from their window in the heavens to the Winnili women in an illustration by Emil Doepler, 1905
Winnili women with their hair tied as beards look up at Godan and Frea in an illustration by Emil Doepler, 1905
Wodan Heals Balder's Horse by Emil Doepler, 1905
A 16th-century depiction of Norse gods by Olaus Magnus: from left to right, Frigg, Odin, and Thor
The trio of gods giving life to the first humans, Ask and Embla, by Robert Engels, 1919
Odin sacrificing himself upon Yggdrasil as depicted by Lorenz Frølich, 1895
After being put to sleep by Odin and being awoken by the hero Sigurd, the valkyrie Sigrífa says a pagan prayer; illustration (1911) by Arthur Rackham
Óðinn throws his spear at the Vanir host in an illustration by Lorenz Frølich (1895)
Odin sits atop his steed Sleipnir, his ravens Huginn and Muninn and wolves Geri and Freki nearby (1895) by Lorenz Frølich
Odin's hunt (August Malmström)
A C-type bracteate (DR BR42) featuring a figure above a horse flanked by a bird
A plate from a Swedish Vendel era helmet featuring a figure riding a horse, accompanied by two ravens, holding a spear and shield, and confronted by a serpent
The Ledberg stone at Ledberg Church, Östergötland, Sweden
Valknut on the Stora Hammars I stone
Wotan takes leave of Brunhild (1892) by Konrad Dielitz

In Old English texts, Odin holds a particular place as a euhemerized ancestral figure among royalty, and he is frequently referred to as a founding figure among various other Germanic peoples, such as the Langobards, while some Old Norse sources depict him as an enthroned ruler of the gods.