Lombards

LombardLongobardsLongobardLombardicLangobardsLangobardiLangobardLangobardicLombard KingdomLombard invasion of Italy
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.wikipedia
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Suebi

SueviSuevesSuebian
In the 1st century AD, they formed part of the Suebi, in north-western Germany. Tacitus also counted the Lombards as a remote and aggressive Suebian tribe, one of those united in worship of the deity Nerthus, who he referred to as "Mother Earth", and also as subjects of Marobod the King of the Marcomanni.
The Suebi (or Suevi, Suavi, or Suevians) were a large group of related Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones, Lombards and others, sometimes including sub-groups simply referred to as Suebi.

Alboin

AlboinusAlbuinKing Alboin
The Lombard king Audoin defeated the Gepid leader Thurisind in 551 or 552; his successor Alboin eventually destroyed the Gepids in 567.
Alboin (530s – 28 June 572) was king of the Lombards from about 560 until 572.

Paul the Deacon

Paulus DiaconusPaulusPaolo Diacono
The Lombard historian Paul the Deacon wrote in the Historia Langobardorum that the Lombards descended from a small tribe called the Winnili, who dwelt in southern Scandinavia (Scadanan) before migrating to seek new lands.
undefined 720s – 13 April 799 AD), also known as Paulus Diaconus, Warnefridus, Barnefridus, Winfridus and sometimes suffixed Cassinensis (i.e. "of Monte Cassino"), was a Benedictine monk, scribe, and historian of the Lombards.

Charlemagne

Charles the GreatEmperor CharlemagneCharles
In 774, the Kingdom was conquered by the Frankish King Charlemagne and integrated into his Empire.
He continued his father's policy towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in northern Italy and leading an incursion into Muslim Spain.

History of the Lombards

Historia LangobardorumGesta LangobardorumHistoria gentis Langobardorum
The Lombard historian Paul the Deacon wrote in the Historia Langobardorum that the Lombards descended from a small tribe called the Winnili, who dwelt in southern Scandinavia (Scadanan) before migrating to seek new lands.
The history covers the story of the Lombards from their mythical origins to the death of King Liutprand in 743, and contains much information about the Eastern Roman empire, the Franks, and others.

Audoin

Auduin
The Lombard king Audoin defeated the Gepid leader Thurisind in 551 or 552; his successor Alboin eventually destroyed the Gepids in 567.
Alduin (Langobardic: Aldwin or Hildwin, Audoinus; also called Auduin or Audoin) was king of the Lombards from 546 to 560.

Thurisind

King ThorisindThorisindThurisind, King of the Gepids
The Lombard king Audoin defeated the Gepid leader Thurisind in 551 or 552; his successor Alboin eventually destroyed the Gepids in 567.
His reign was marked by multiple wars with the Lombards, a Germanic people who had arrived in the former Roman province of Pannonia under the leadership of their king, Audoin.

Norman conquest of southern Italy

Norman conquestNorman conquest of SicilyNorman
However, Lombard nobles continued to rule southern parts of the Italian peninsula well into the 11th century, when they were conquered by the Normans and added to their County of Sicily.
Itinerant Norman forces arrived in the Mezzogiorno as mercenaries in the service of Lombard and Byzantine factions, communicating news swiftly back home about opportunities in the Mediterranean.

Lombardy

LombardLombardiaLombardy Region
Their legacy is also apparent in the regional name Lombardy (in the north of Italy).
During the early Middle Ages "Lombardy" referred to the Kingdom of the Lombards (Regnum Langobardorum), a kingdom ruled by the Germanic Lombards who had controlled most of Italy since their invasion of Byzantine Italy in 568.

Italy runestones

Runestonesrunestone U 133Runestones mention Italy
In this period, the southern part of Italy still under Longobardic domination was known to the foreigners by the name Langbarðaland (Land of the Lombards), in the Norse runestones.
The Italy runestones are three or four Varangian runestones from 11th-century Sweden that tell of warriors who died in Langbarðaland ("Land of the Lombards"), the Old Norse name for Italy.

Origo Gentis Langobardorum

tribal history
Paul's chief source for Lombard origins, however, is the 7th-century Origo Gentis Langobardorum (Origin of the Lombard People).
The Origo Gentis Langobardorum (Latin for "Origin of the tribe of the Lombards") is a short, 7th-century AD Latin account offering a founding myth of the Lombard people.

Germanic peoples

GermanicGermanic tribesGermanic tribe
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
He goes on to remark that the Langobardi are fewer, but despite being "surrounded by many mighty peoples" they managed to defend themselves "not by submissiveness but by battle and boldness; and in remoter and better defended areas live the Reudigni, Aviones, Anglii, Varini, Eudoses, the Suardones, and Nuithones.

Odin

WodenWotanWodan
The Vandals prepared for war and consulted Godan (the god Odin ), who answered that he would give the victory to those whom he would see first at sunrise.
In Old English texts, Odin holds a particular place as a euhemerized ancestral figure among royalty, and he is frequently referred to as a founding figure among various other Germanic peoples, such as the Langobards.

Ostrogoths

OstrogothOstrogothicGothic
The Lombards were joined by numerous Saxons, Heruls, Gepids, Bulgars, Thuringians, and Ostrogoths, and their invasion of Italy was almost unopposed.
The remaining Ostrogoths were absorbed into the Lombards, who established a kingdom in Italy in 568.

Byzantine Empire

ByzantineEastern Roman EmpireByzantines
Following this victory, Alboin decided to lead his people to Italy, which had become severely depopulated and devastated after the long Gothic War (535–554) between the Byzantine Empire and the Ostrogothic Kingdom there.
Meanwhile, the Germanic Lombards invaded Italy; by the end of the century, only a third of Italy was in Byzantine hands.

Heaðobards

HeaðobardHeathobardHeathobards
The same Old Norse root Barth or Barði, meaning "beard", is shared with the Heaðobards mentioned in both Beowulf and in Widsith, where they are in conflict with the Danes.
The Heaðobards (Old English: Heaðubeardan, Old Low German: Headubarden, "war-beards") were possibly a branch of the Langobards, and their name may be preserved in toponym Bardengau, in Lower Saxony, Germany.

Bulgars

BulgarBulgarianProto-Bulgarians
The Lombards were joined by numerous Saxons, Heruls, Gepids, Bulgars, Thuringians, and Ostrogoths, and their invasion of Italy was almost unopposed.
The account by Paul the Deacon in his History of the Lombards (8th century) says that at the beginning of the 5th century in the North-Western slopes of the Carpathians the Vulgares killed the Lombard king Agelmund.

Sceafa

SceafKing SheaveScef
The legendary king Sceafa of Scandza was an ancient Lombardic king in Anglo-Saxon legend.
The Old English poem Widsith, line 32, in a listing of famous kings and their countries, has Sceafa Longbeardum, so naming Sceafa as ruler of the Lombards.

Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire)

ItalyKingdom of ItalyItalian
They established a Lombard Kingdom in north and central Italy, later named Regnum Italicum ("Kingdom of Italy"), which reached its zenith under the 8th-century ruler Liutprand.
The Kings of the Lombards (reges Langobardorum, singular rex Langobardorum) ruled that Germanic people from their invasion of Italy in 567–68 until the Lombardic identity became lost in the ninth and tenth centuries.

Scandinavia

Scandinavian countriesScandinavianNordic
The Lombard historian Paul the Deacon wrote in the Historia Langobardorum that the Lombards descended from a small tribe called the Winnili, who dwelt in southern Scandinavia (Scadanan) before migrating to seek new lands.
The form Scadinavia as the original home of the Langobards appears in Paulus Diaconus' Historia Langobardorum, but in other versions of Historia Langobardorum appear the forms Scadan, Scandanan, Scadanan and Scatenauge.

Pavia

Pavia, Italycomune di Paviahistory
By late 569 they had conquered all of northern Italy and the principal cities north of the Po River except Pavia, which fell in 572.
This new invading people in 568 were the Lombards (otherwise called the Longobards).

Saxons

SaxonSassenachSaxon people
The Lombards were joined by numerous Saxons, Heruls, Gepids, Bulgars, Thuringians, and Ostrogoths, and their invasion of Italy was almost unopposed.
In 569, some Saxons accompanied the Lombards into Italy under the leadership of Alboin and settled there.

Normans

NormanNorman timesAnglo-Norman
However, Lombard nobles continued to rule southern parts of the Italian peninsula well into the 11th century, when they were conquered by the Normans and added to their County of Sicily.
William of Apulia tells that, in 1016, Norman pilgrims to the shrine of the Archangel Michael at Monte Gargano were met by Melus of Bari, a Lombard nobleman and rebel, who persuaded them to return with more warriors to help throw off the Byzantine rule, which they did.

Battle of the Teutoburg Forest

Battle of Teutoburg ForestTeutoburg ForestClades Variana
Marobod had made peace with the Romans, and that is why the Lombards were not part of the Germanic confederacy under Arminius at the Battle of Teutoburg Forest in AD 9.
Following their defeat at the hands of Drusus I in 9 BCE the Marcomanni had fled into the territory of the Boii, from which they formed an alliance with the Hermunduri, Quadi, Semnones, Lugians, Zumi, Butones, Mugilones, Sibini and Langobards.

Maroboduus

MarbodMarobodusMarobod
Tacitus also counted the Lombards as a remote and aggressive Suebian tribe, one of those united in worship of the deity Nerthus, who he referred to as "Mother Earth", and also as subjects of Marobod the King of the Marcomanni.
Maroboduus (born circa 30 BC, died in AD 37), was a Romanized king of the Germanic Suebi, who under pressure from the wars of the Cherusci and Romans, and losing the Suevic Semnones and Langobardi from his kingdom, moved with the Marcomanni into the forests of Bohemia, near to the Quadi.