London, Brighton and South Coast Railway

London Brighton and South Coast RailwayLB&SCRLBSCRLondon, Brighton & South Coast RailwayLondon, Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR)London, Brighton, and South Coast RailwayElevated Electricformer AC systemLondon Brighton & South Coast RailwayLondon Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR)
The London, Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR; known also as "the Brighton line", "the Brighton Railway" or the Brighton) was a railway company in the United Kingdom from 1846 to 1922.wikipedia
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South Eastern Railway (England)

South Eastern RailwaySouth Eastern Railway (UK)South Eastern Railway Company
On its eastern side the LB&SCR was bounded by the South Eastern Railway (SER)—later one component of the South Eastern and Chatham Railway (SE&CR)—which provided an alternative route to Bexhill, St Leonards-on-Sea, and Hastings.
Much of the company's early history saw attempts at expansion and feuding with its neighbours; the London Brighton and South Coast Railway (LBSCR) in the west and the London, Chatham and Dover Railway (LCDR) to the north-east.

London and Croydon Railway

London & Croydon RailwayCroydon Railway London and Croydon
It opened in 1839 and in February 1846 merged with other railways to form the London Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR).

Southern Railway (UK)

Southern RailwaySRSouthern
The LB&SCR was formed by a merger of five companies in 1846, and merged with the L&SWR, the SE&CR and several minor railway companies in southern England under the Railways Act 1921 to form the Southern Railway from 1 January 1923.
The railway was formed by the amalgamation of several smaller railway companies, the largest of which were the London & South Western Railway (LSWR), the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR) and the South Eastern and Chatham Railway (SE&CR).

Sutton and Mole Valley lines

Mole Valley LineSutton & Mole Valley LinesSutton & Mole Valley Line
There were two branch lines under construction at the time of the amalgamation: the Sutton & Mole Valley Lines from Croydon to Epsom, and the Arun Valley Line from to.
The Sutton and Mole Valley lines were constructed between 1847 and 1868 by the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway, the London and South Western Railway and the LBSCR-sponsored Horsham, Dorking and Leatherhead Railway.

Eastbourne

Eastbourne, EnglandEastbourne, East SussexEastbourne, Sussex, England
The LB&SCR had the most direct routes from London to the south coast seaside resorts of Brighton, Eastbourne, Worthing, Littlehampton and Bognor Regis, and to the ports of Newhaven and Shoreham-by-Sea. The East Sussex coast line from Brighton to Lewes and St Leonards-on-Sea, with running powers over the SER to Hastings, opened in 1846 one month before the amalgamation, with branches to Newhaven, Eastbourne and Hailsham.
An early plan, for a town named Burlington, was abandoned, but on 14 May 1849 the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway arrived to scenes of great jubilation.

Railways Act 1921

Grouping1923 GroupingGrouped
The LB&SCR was formed by a merger of five companies in 1846, and merged with the L&SWR, the SE&CR and several minor railway companies in southern England under the Railways Act 1921 to form the Southern Railway from 1 January 1923.
The parallel railways of the East Midlands and the rivalry between the South Eastern Railway and the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway at Hastings were two examples of such local competition.

Newhaven, East Sussex

NewhavenNewhaven, Sussex Newhaven
The LB&SCR had the most direct routes from London to the south coast seaside resorts of Brighton, Eastbourne, Worthing, Littlehampton and Bognor Regis, and to the ports of Newhaven and Shoreham-by-Sea.
The London Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR) constructed their own wharf and facilities on the east side of the river, and opened the Newhaven harbour railway station.

Seaford branch line

Seaford BranchBrighton to SeafordBrighton, Newhaven Marine and Seaford
The East Sussex coast line from Brighton to Lewes and St Leonards-on-Sea, with running powers over the SER to Hastings, opened in 1846 one month before the amalgamation, with branches to Newhaven, Eastbourne and Hailsham.
Engineered by the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway's Chief Engineer Frederick Banister, the first section of the line was opened in 1847 to aid the transport of goods to and from Newhaven.

Frederick Banister

F.D. BanisterFrederick Dale Banister
Schuster accelerated the rate of mileage increase after appointing Frederick Banister as Chief Engineer in 1860.
Frederick Dale Banister MICE (15 March 1823 – 22 December 1897), was an English civil engineer, best known for his 35 years as the Chief Engineer of the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR).

Brighton, Lewes and Hastings Railway

Brighton Lewes and Hastings RailwayBrighton to LewesBrighton to Lewes railway
The company existed from February 1844 but only operated trains for a few weeks during June and July 1846 before it was amalgamated with other companies to form the London Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR) on 27 July 1846.

St Leonards-on-Sea

St LeonardsSt. Leonards-on-SeaSt Leonards on Sea
On its eastern side the LB&SCR was bounded by the South Eastern Railway (SER)—later one component of the South Eastern and Chatham Railway (SE&CR)—which provided an alternative route to Bexhill, St Leonards-on-Sea, and Hastings. The East Sussex coast line from Brighton to Lewes and St Leonards-on-Sea, with running powers over the SER to Hastings, opened in 1846 one month before the amalgamation, with branches to Newhaven, Eastbourne and Hailsham.
By now the railways had arrived: the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway reached West Marina in 1845, although it was not until 1852 that the station later named St Leonards Warrior Square was opened by the South Eastern Railway.

Leo Schuster

Leo Schuster Brothers & Company
Some of the directors of the LB&SCR were closely involved with the company that purchased The Crystal Palace after the completion of The Great Exhibition in October 1851 and arranged for its removal to a site on Sydenham Hill, close to the London to Brighton main line, which they purchased from Leo Schuster.
Leopold Schuster (1791 – 27 February 1871 ) was a German-born British cotton trader turned merchant banker, best known as the Chairman of the London and Brighton Railway and then the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway, and part of the consortia which bought The Crystal Palace.

Arun Valley line

Arun Valley railway linerailway linebranch line
There were two branch lines under construction at the time of the amalgamation: the Sutton & Mole Valley Lines from Croydon to Epsom, and the Arun Valley Line from to.
The line was opened in three stages by the London Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR) between 1848 and 1863, creating what was then known as Mid-Sussex route to Portsmouth.

Bricklayers Arms railway station

Bricklayers ArmsBricklayers' ArmsBricklayers Arms depot
The LB&SCR inherited from the L&CR running powers to the smaller SER passenger terminus at Bricklayers Arms.
The SER leased the L&GR from 1 January 1845 and L&CR became part of the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR) on 27 February 1846.

London and South Western Railway

LSWRLondon & South Western RailwayL&SWR
It was bounded on its western side by the London and South Western Railway (L&SWR), which provided an alternative route to Portsmouth.
South of the main line, the important towns of Epsom and Leatherhead needed to be served; the rival London, Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR) reached first (from ), but in 1859 the LSWR opened a line from, closely paralleling the main line as far as the present-day and then turning south to Epsom.

Ouse Valley Railway

Ouse Valley branch line
It also obtained powers for the Ouse Valley Railway, from Balcombe on the Brighton main line to Uckfield and Hailsham; an extension to St Leonards was also approved in May 1865.
The Ouse Valley Railway was to have been part of the London, Brighton & South Coast Railway (LBSCR).

East Coastway line

East CoastwayEastEastbourne to London line
The East Sussex coast line from Brighton to Lewes and St Leonards-on-Sea, with running powers over the SER to Hastings, opened in 1846 one month before the amalgamation, with branches to Newhaven, Eastbourne and Hailsham.
The following month (July 1846) the Brighton Lewes and Hastings Railway, along with other railways, merged to form the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway.

Brighton main line

Brighton lineQuarry Linemain line
The main line to Brighton from London Bridge opened in 1841.
A few weeks later the L&CR, the L&BR and other railways in Sussex amalgamated to form the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR).

West London line

West London Extension Joint RailwayWest London Joint RailwayWest London
The VS&PR line was also connected with another joint venture the West London Extension Joint Railway, jointly financed by the LB&SCR, L&SWR, GWR and the L&NWR, to permit goods transfers between the companies and cross-London passenger trains.
An Act in 1859 granted those two companies, with the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR) and the London and South Western Railway (L&SWR), powers to construct the West London Extension Joint Railway on the filled-in canal south from the Kensington Basin to the bridge under the Kings Road, to bridge the Thames and to connect near Clapham Junction to railways south of the river.

West End of London and Crystal Palace Railway

line to Crystal PalaceWEL&CPRWest End and Crystal Palace line
Schuster also encouraged an independent concern, the West End of London and Crystal Palace Railway (WEL&CPR), to construct a new line extending in a wide arc round south London from the LB&SCR Crystal Palace branch to Wandsworth in 1856 and to Battersea in 1858 with a temporary terminus at Battersea Pier.
Throughout its brief existence the railway was operated by the London Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR) to which it was leased in 1858 and sold in 1859.

Christ's Hospital railway station

Christ's HospitalChrist's Hospital stationChrists Hospital
The LB&SCR wished to connect Horsham with significant towns in Surrey, and in 1865 it opened a line between West Horsham and the L&SWR near Guildford.
It was opened in 1902 by the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway and was intended primarily to serve Christ's Hospital, a large independent school which had moved to the area in that year.

Three Bridges to Tunbridge Wells Central Line

Three Bridges to East Grinstead RailwayEast GrinsteadThree Bridges to Groombridge
Samuel Laing had also approved a modest degree of expansion elsewhere, most notably the acquisition of a branch line from the main line at Three Bridges to the market town of East Grinstead in July 1855.
The LBR - now the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway (LBSCR) - went ahead with its purchase of the line in January 1865, a sum of £53,000 being paid to the EGR which was not, however, enough for the EGR's shareholders to have their capital back in full.

Wealden Line

Lewes to Uckfieldbranch lineLewes – Uckfield
During 1858, a branch line was built from Lewes to Uckfield, extended to Groombridge and Tunbridge Wells in 1868.
Authorisation for the construction of a line from Brighton to Hastings via Lewes was obtained by the Brighton, Uckfield & Tunbridge Wells Railway in 1844, sponsored by the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway (LBSCR), with the passing of the Brighton, Lewes and Hastings Railway Act (7 & 8 Vict.

Portsmouth Direct line

PortsmouthWaterloo-Portsmouth linean important branch line
In 1853 the Direct Portsmouth Railway gained parliamentary authority to build a line from Godalming to Havant with the intention of the company selling itself either to the L&SWR or the LB&SCR.
However the L&BR and the L&CR managed to overcome their differences, and they agreed on an amalgamation: together they formed the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway (LBSCR) on 27 July 1846.

Croydon and Epsom Railway

However, before its line was opened it was amalgamated with other companies to form the London Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR) on 27 July 1846.