London and Croydon Railway

London & Croydon RailwayCroydon Railway London and CroydonBrighton, Croydon, Dover and Greenwich RailwayL&CRLondon and CroydonLondon and Croydon Railway CompanyLondon to Brighton
The London and Croydon Railway (L&CR) was an early railway in England.wikipedia
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London Bridge station

London BridgeLondon Bridge railway stationJubilee line station
It was to extend northwards from the Croydon Canal terminal at New Cross, so as to make a junction at Corbetts Lane (then spelt Corbets Lane), in Bermondsey with the London and Greenwich Railway; its trains were to run over that line to its London Bridge station.
It subsequently served the London and Croydon Railway, the London and Brighton Railway and the South Eastern Railway, thus becoming an important London terminus.

London and Brighton Railway

London & Brighton RailwayLondon and Brighton Railway Company London and Brighton Railways
The South Eastern Railway got its authorising Act of Parliament on 21 June 1836 for a line from Dover, joining the London and Croydon line end-on at Croydon, and the London and Brighton Railway obtained its Act on 15 June 1837, also relying on running over the London and Croydon from Norwood.
Its railway ran from a junction with the London & Croydon Railway (L&CR) at Norwood – which gives it access from London Bridge, just south of the River Thames in central London.

South Eastern Railway (England)

South Eastern RailwaySouth Eastern Railway (UK)South Eastern Railway Company
The South Eastern Railway got its authorising Act of Parliament on 21 June 1836 for a line from Dover, joining the London and Croydon line end-on at Croydon, and the London and Brighton Railway obtained its Act on 15 June 1837, also relying on running over the London and Croydon from Norwood.
The engineer of the new line, William Cubitt, was also engineer of the London and Croydon Railway (L&CR), which planned to use L&GR lines as far as Corbett’s Lane in Bermondsey before turning south towards Croydon.

Croydon

Croydon, SurreyCroydon Vision 2020Croydon, England
Edge railways using locomotive traction represented a clear technological advance, marked particularly by the Stockton and Darlington Railway (1825) and the Liverpool and Manchester Railway (1830), and promoters put forward a scheme to link Croydon, then an industrial town, with London.
The London and Croydon Railway (an atmospheric and steam-powered railway) opened between London Bridge and West Croydon in 1839, using much of the route of the canal (which had closed in 1836).

Forest Hill, London

Forest HillForest Hill, KentForest Hill, Lewisham, London
The line proved to be expensive to build, costing £615,000 rather than the estimated £180,000, due to large cuttings at New Cross and Forest Hill.
In 1809, the Croydon Canal opened, however, the large number of locks (28) meant it was not a commercial success, and it was bought by the London & Croydon Railway Company who used the alignment to construct the London Bridge to Croydon railway line opening in 1839.

London Bridge – Greenwich Railway Viaduct

brick viaductCorbett's LaneLondon Bridge-Greenwich Railway Viaduct
A Parliamentary Select Committee also became concerned about the safety of the arrangements, and in response the Greenwich Company was given powers to widen its viaduct on the southern side so as to make a four-track viaduct from Corbett's Lane to London Bridge.
The original viaduct had been widened for 1.95 mi of its length between Corbett's Lane and London Bridge on the south side to accommodate the trains of the London and Croydon Railway and London and Brighton Railway, in 1842 and also for 2.65 mi on the north side to accommodate the South Eastern Railway main line in 1850.

New Cross Gate railway station

New Cross GateNew Cross Gate stationNew Cross
The line opened on 5 June 1839 There were six intermediate stations, at New Cross (now New Cross Gate), Dartmouth Arms (now Forest Hill), Sydenham, Penge, Anerley Bridge (now Anerley), and Jolly Sailor (replaced by Norwood Junction in 1859).
The first, the London and Croydon Railway (L&CR), established a station on New Cross Road close to Hatcham in 1839.

William Cubitt

Sir William CubittWilliam Cubitt & Co.blown up with gunpowder
The consultant engineer was William Cubitt.
On the Croydon Railway the atmospheric system was tried by him.

London and Greenwich Railway

London & Greenwich RailwayL&GRLondon and Greenwich Railway Company
It was to extend northwards from the Croydon Canal terminal at New Cross, so as to make a junction at Corbetts Lane (then spelt Corbets Lane), in Bermondsey with the London and Greenwich Railway; its trains were to run over that line to its London Bridge station.
On 5 June 1839, the London and Croydon Railway (L&CR) opened.

Bricklayers Arms railway station

Bricklayers ArmsBricklayers' ArmsBricklayers Arms depot
As a result, they jointly constructed a branch from the L&CR at New Cross to a new terminus designed by Lewis Cubitt at Bricklayers Arms, thereby avoiding use of the L&GR.
Bricklayers Arms was a railway station in Southwark opened by the London and Croydon Railway and the South Eastern Railway in 1844 as an alternative to the London and Greenwich Railway's terminus at London Bridge.

Norwood Junction railway station

Norwood JunctionNorwoodNorwood Junction station
The line opened on 5 June 1839 There were six intermediate stations, at New Cross (now New Cross Gate), Dartmouth Arms (now Forest Hill), Sydenham, Penge, Anerley Bridge (now Anerley), and Jolly Sailor (replaced by Norwood Junction in 1859).
In 1839 the London and Croydon Railway opened Jolly-sailor station — "Jolly-sailor near Beulah Spa" on fares lists and timetables — at the north end of the High Street, adjacent to the Portland Road level crossing.

Croydon Canal

Croydon
The Croydon Canal of 1809 was moribund, and it was proposed to purchase it and to utilise its course.
Much of the alignment was used by the London & Croydon Railway Company, which had bought the canal for £40,250, for part of the railway between London Bridge and West Croydon station, which is on the site of the canal basin.

Forest Hill railway station

Forest HillDartmouth ArmsForest Hill station
The line opened on 5 June 1839 There were six intermediate stations, at New Cross (now New Cross Gate), Dartmouth Arms (now Forest Hill), Sydenham, Penge, Anerley Bridge (now Anerley), and Jolly Sailor (replaced by Norwood Junction in 1859).
The station was opened by the original London & Croydon Railway (L&CR) on 5 June 1839, as Dartmouth Arms (the name of the local inn).

Sydenham railway station (London)

SydenhamSydenham stationSydenham (London)
The line opened on 5 June 1839 There were six intermediate stations, at New Cross (now New Cross Gate), Dartmouth Arms (now Forest Hill), Sydenham, Penge, Anerley Bridge (now Anerley), and Jolly Sailor (replaced by Norwood Junction in 1859).
The alignment was purchased by the London and Croydon Railway, who drained the canal and re-opened as a railway on the 5 June 1839.

Anerley railway station

AnerleyAnerley stationAnerley Bridge
The line opened on 5 June 1839 There were six intermediate stations, at New Cross (now New Cross Gate), Dartmouth Arms (now Forest Hill), Sydenham, Penge, Anerley Bridge (now Anerley), and Jolly Sailor (replaced by Norwood Junction in 1859).
The station was opened originally as Anerley Bridge by the London and Croydon Railway in 1839.

Joseph Gibbs (engineer)

Joseph Gibbs
The engineer Joseph Gibbs surveyed the route; this involved complex judgments, and is described below.
Some of his first designs were that of the Great Northern Railway, and for part of the line from London to Brighton.

Rail profile

railsrailVignoles rail
The line used "Vignoles" flat bottomed rail, broader in the base and lower than modern rail.
In 1836 he recommended flat-bottomed rail to the London and Croydon Railway for which he was consulting engineer.

Penge West railway station

Penge WestPengePenge West station
The line opened on 5 June 1839 There were six intermediate stations, at New Cross (now New Cross Gate), Dartmouth Arms (now Forest Hill), Sydenham, Penge, Anerley Bridge (now Anerley), and Jolly Sailor (replaced by Norwood Junction in 1859).
The original Penge station was opened by the London and Croydon Railway in 1839, probably more for logistical reasons than anything else: the railway crossed the nearby High Street by a level crossing, and the station would have provided a place for trains to wait while the crossing gates were opened for them.

Railway semaphore signal

semaphore signalssemaphore signalsemaphore
The first railway semaphore signal was erected by Charles Hutton Gregory on the railway at New Cross, about 1842.
The first railway semaphore signal was erected by Charles Hutton Gregory on the London and Croydon Railway (later the London Brighton and South Coast Railway) at New Cross, southeast London, about 1842 on the newly enlarged layout also accommodating the South Eastern Railway.

West Croydon station

West CroydonCroydonWest Croydon railway station
This was later to be developed to the present-day West Croydon station.
The canal was drained and became part of the route of the London & Croydon Railway, opening on 5 June 1839.

2-2-2

2-2-2T2-2-2WT2-2-2ST
The railway owned seven 2-2-2 locomotives and one 0-4-2.
J. & G. Rennie supplied 2-2-2 locomotives to the London and Croydon Railway from 1838 and the London and Brighton Railway in 1840.

London, Brighton and South Coast Railway

London Brighton and South Coast RailwayLB&SCRLBSCR
It opened in 1839 and in February 1846 merged with other railways to form the London Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR).

Atmospheric railway

atmospheric systematmospheric powerpneumatic railway
In 1844, the L&CR was given parliamentary authority to lay an additional line next to the existing track and test an atmospheric railway system.
The London and Croydon Railway (L&CR) obtained its authorising Act of Parliament in 1835, to build its line from a junction with the London and Greenwich Railway (L&GR) to Croydon.

Overpass

flyoverflyoversflyover ramp
As part of the construction works for the atmospheric system, the world's first railway flyover (overpass) was constructed south of Jolly Sailor, to carry the atmospheric line over the conventional steam line.
The world's first railroad flyover was constructed in 1843 by the London and Croydon Railway at Norwood Junction railway station to carry its atmospheric railway vehicles over the Brighton Main Line.

George Rennie (engineer)

George RennieGeorgeJ. & G. Rennie
The remaining two were built by G. and J. Rennie, in August 1838 and May 1839.
They also constructed some locomotives for the London and Croydon Railway.