Long-distance calling

long distancelong-distancelong distance calllong distance callinglong-distance calllong distance telephonelong distance telephone calllong distance telephonylong distance telephone servicelong distance calls
In telecommunications, a long distance call (U.S.) or trunk call (also known as a toll call in the U.K.) is a telephone call made to a location outside a defined local calling area.wikipedia
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Switchboard operator

telephone operatoroperatortelephonist
Before direct distance dialing (DDD), all long distance calls were established by special switchboard operators (long distance operators) even in exchanges where calls within the local exchange were dialed directly.
Before the advent of operator distance dialing and customer direct dial (DDD) calling, switchboard operators would work with their counterparts in the distant central office to complete long distance calls.

International call

international telephone callinternational telephonycome
The cost of international calls varies dramatically among countries.
These cards typically offer rates lower than most traditional long distance products and services, and can be used via landline, cellular phone, PBX, and some VoIP services, as well as from some airports and hotels.

First transcontinental telephone call

coast-to-coast long-distance telephone callfirst transcontinental phone call
On January 25, 1915, Alexander Graham Bell ceremonially sent the first transcontinental telephone call from 15 Dey Street in New York City, which was received by his former assistant Thomas A. Watson at 333 Grant Avenue in San Francisco.
The original long distance telephone network actually started in 1885, in New York City.

Direct distance dialing

direct dialdirect distance dialIDDD
Before direct distance dialing (DDD), all long distance calls were established by special switchboard operators (long distance operators) even in exchanges where calls within the local exchange were dialed directly. On November 10, 1951, the first direct dial long distance telephone call in North America was placed from Mayor M. Leslie Denning of Englewood, New Jersey to Mayor Frank Osborne of Alameda, California via AT&T's Bell System.
On November 10, 1951, Englewood Mayor M. Leslie Denning made the first customer-dialed long distance call, to Mayor Frank Osborne of Alameda, California.

Englewood, New Jersey

EnglewoodEnglewood, NJEnglewood (part)
On November 10, 1951, the first direct dial long distance telephone call in North America was placed from Mayor M. Leslie Denning of Englewood, New Jersey to Mayor Frank Osborne of Alameda, California via AT&T's Bell System.
On November 10, 1951, Englewood Mayor M. Leslie Denning made the first customer-dialed long distance call, to Mayor Frank Osborne of Alameda, California.

Trunking

trunktrunk linetrunks
In telecommunications, a long distance call (U.S.) or trunk call (also known as a toll call in the U.K.) is a telephone call made to a location outside a defined local calling area.
In the UK and the Commonwealth countries, a trunk call was the term for long distance calling which traverses one or more trunk lines and involving more than one telephone exchange.

Audion

audion tubeAudion amplifier tubeAudion vacuum tube
A major research venture and contest led to the development of the audion—originally invented by Lee De Forest and greatly improved by others in the years between 1907 and 1914—which provided the means for telephone signals to reach from coast to coast.
It is significant that he apparently never saw its potential as a telephone repeater amplifier, even though crude electromechanical note magnifiers had been the bane of the telephone industry for at least two decades.

Wide Area Telephone Service

WATS lineInWATSWATS
A Zenith number in the late 1950s required an operator manually determine the destination number from a printed list; the 1967 Wide Area Telephone Service introduced the first automated toll-free telephone numbers, terminated on special fixed-rate trunks.
Wide Area Telephone Service (WATS) was a flat-rate long distance service offering for customer dial-type telecommunications in some of the countries that adhere to the North American Numbering Plan.

Operator Toll Dialing

Nationwide Operator Toll Dialing
After World War II, priority was given by AT&T in the USA and the various PTT entities in Europe to automating switching on the toll networks in their respective countries (initially for Operator Toll Dialing).
Operator Toll Dialing was a project and method used by the Bell System in the USA and Canada to automate the switching and billing of long distance calls in the public switched telephone network (PSTN).

Long-distance operator

long distance operatorlong distance telephoneperson-to-person
Before direct distance dialing (DDD), all long distance calls were established by special switchboard operators (long distance operators) even in exchanges where calls within the local exchange were dialed directly. The caller would dial the long-distance operator (typically ‘110’ or ‘211’ in large Bell System cities of that era; ’0’ was for local assistance) and provide the destination city name and called number as well as their own number for billing purposes (there was no automatic number identification).
In telephony, the long-distance operator is a telephone operator available to assist with making long distance telephone calls (or toll calls in British English), answering billing questions, making collect calls and other functions, including emergency assistance.

Long line (telecommunications)

long lineLong distance callsLong Lines
Long distance calls are typically charged a higher billing rate than local calls.

Automatic number identification

ANIautomatic number identification (ANI)the caller's number
The caller would dial the long-distance operator (typically ‘110’ or ‘211’ in large Bell System cities of that era; ’0’ was for local assistance) and provide the destination city name and called number as well as their own number for billing purposes (there was no automatic number identification).
Automatic number identification was originally created by AT&T Corporation for internal long distance charging purposes, eliminating the need for telephone operators to manually request the number of the calling party for a toll call.

Class-4 telephone switch

tandem switchClass 4Class 4 telephone switch
This routing would allow the Los Angeles operator to dial via the tandem switch (i.e., class-4 telephone switch) to the Mount Pleasant operator’s switchboard, and have the call come in on a special trunk (designated by the 181 code) used for incoming calls to ring-down points (places with manual service whose connection to the national network was via a larger point).
A class-4, or tandem, telephone switch is a U.S. telephone company central office telephone exchange used to interconnect local exchange carrier offices for long distance communications in the public switched telephone network.

AT&T Corporation

AT&TAmerican Telephone and Telegraph CompanyAmerican Telephone & Telegraph
In 1892, AT&T built an interconnected long distance telephone network, which reached from New York to Chicago, the technological limit for non-amplified wiring.

Breakup of the Bell System

Bell System divestiturebreakup of AT&TAT&T divestiture
During the 1984 breakup of the Bell System, the local access and transport area or LATA concept was created to distinguish between in-region calls (which were handled by local telephone companies such as the Baby Bells) and out-of-region calls (handled by interexchange carriers such as AT&T, MCI and Sprint).
AT&T would continue to be a provider of long distance service, while the now-independent Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs) would provide local service, and would no longer be directly supplied with equipment from AT&T subsidiary Western Electric.

Local access and transport area

LATALATA codeLATAs
During the 1984 breakup of the Bell System, the local access and transport area or LATA concept was created to distinguish between in-region calls (which were handled by local telephone companies such as the Baby Bells) and out-of-region calls (handled by interexchange carriers such as AT&T, MCI and Sprint). Since 1984 there has also been a distinction between intra-local access and transport area (LATA) calls and those between different LATAs, whose boundaries are not necessarily state boundaries.

Feature group

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Various feature groups were used where equal access is available to allow callers to select a long-distance carrier for each call.
A Feature Group, in North American telephone industry jargon, is most commonly used to designate various standard means of access by callers to competitive long distance services.

Sprint Corporation

SprintSprint NextelSprint Nextel Corporation
During the 1984 breakup of the Bell System, the local access and transport area or LATA concept was created to distinguish between in-region calls (which were handled by local telephone companies such as the Baby Bells) and out-of-region calls (handled by interexchange carriers such as AT&T, MCI and Sprint).
In 2006, Sprint left the local landline telephone business and spun those assets off into a new company named Embarq, which later became a part of CenturyLink, which remains one of the largest long-distance providers in the United States.

North American Numbering Plan

Area codeArea codesArea code(s)
The regulatory structure in British Telecom exchanges differs from the North American system as there are no free local calls.
The preceding 1 also ideally indicates a toll call; however, this is inconsistent across the NANP because the FCC has left it to the U.S. state public utilities commissions to regulate for traditional landlines, and it has since become moot for mobile phones and digital VoIP services that now offer nationwide calling without the extra digit.

Payphone

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It is not possible for mobile telephone subscribers or coin-paid telephone users to select a default carrier, so long distance calls are often priced higher from these services.
There were also long-distance call payphones costing 15 kopeks, and also provided services of paid media such as listening to an anecdote, obtaining legal advice, or finding the address of the subscriber by phone number.

Mobile phone

cell phonemobile phonesmobile
It is not possible for mobile telephone subscribers or coin-paid telephone users to select a default carrier, so long distance calls are often priced higher from these services.
Sound quality can remain a problem due to the design of the phone, the quality of the cellular network and compression algorithms used in long distance calls.

Area code 700

700AT&T EasyReach 700
Area code 700, rarely used, is reserved for carrier-specific services; each carrier places a recorded self-identification message on 1-700-555-4141 to allow a subscriber to identify the default InterLATA carrier for their line.
It was introduced in 1983 in anticipation of the introduction of long-distance competition in the United States.

AT&T Communications

AT&T Long LinesAT&Tlong-lines
Before utilizing microwave relay and coaxial cables, AT&T used twisted-pair copper wire for long distance service.

Operator assistance

operator-assistedStation-to-stationassist
:In this excerpt from the radio series Dragnet, Sgt. Joe Friday (Jack Webb) places a person-to-person long-distance call to a number reached via a manual switchboard in Fountain Green, Utah – a town of several hundred people served by an independent telephone company.
Since the introduction of direct dial telephone service and the subsequent drop in the price of long distance telephone calls, person-to-person service has virtually disappeared.

Trunk versus toll telephony

Trunk vs TollTrunk vs. Tolltrunk and toll
for long distance calls which were subject to toll charges.