# Long and short scales

short scalelong scalebillionlong scale systemshort-scale(short scale)long and short scaleLong and short scales – Current usagelong number scalelong scale countries
The long and short scales are two of several large-number naming systems for integer powers of ten, which use the same words with different meanings.wikipedia
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### 1,000,000,000

billionbnmilliard
Thus, billion means a thousand millions (10 9 ), trillion means a thousand billions (10 12 ), and so on.
1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.

### 1,000,000

millionMmil
Every new term greater than million is one million times as large as the previous term.
The meaning of the word "million" is common to the short scale and long scale numbering systems, unlike the larger numbers, which have different names in the two systems.

### Power of 10

powers of 10powers of tenpower of ten
The long and short scales are two of several large-number naming systems for integer powers of ten, which use the same words with different meanings.
There are two conventions for naming positive powers of ten, called the long and short scales.

### General Conference on Weights and Measures

CGPMConférence Générale des Poids et MesuresCGPM conference

### Nicolas Chuquet

ChuquetChuquet, Nicolas
Much later, in France and in the US, a different system, the short scale, became established where the term billion signifies 10 9.

### Geneviève Guitel

Guitel, Geneviève
The first recorded use of the terms short scale (échelle courte) and long scale (échelle longue) was by the French mathematician Geneviève Guitel in 1975.
She is mostly remembered for the introduction of the terms échelle longue and échelle courte (long scale and short scale) to refer to two of the main numbering systems used around the world.

### Hyperinflation

hyper-inflationinflationgalloping inflation

### Isaac Greenwood

Greenwood BookGreenwood, Isaac
This book made the first published statement of the short scale value for billion in the United States, which eventually became the value used in most English-speaking countries.

His usage referred to the long scale values of 10 12 and 10 18 respectively.

### Jacques Pelletier du Mans

Jacques Peletier du MansJacques Peletierdu Mans, Jacques Pelletier
This convention is used widely in long scale countries.

### Orders of magnitude (numbers)

Thus, billion means a thousand millions (10 9 ), trillion means a thousand billions (10 12 ), and so on.
Each number is given a name in the short scale, which is used in English-speaking countries, as well as a name in the long scale, which is used in some of the countries that do not have English as their national language.

### Indian numbering system

kharablakhArab
Some languages, particularly in East Asia and South Asia, have large number naming systems that are different from both the long and short scales, for example the Indian numbering system.
The table below follows the short scale usage of one billion being one thousand million.

### Names of large numbers

The "Traditional British" values shown are unused in American English and are obsolete in British English, but their other-language variants are dominant in many non-English-speaking areas, including continental Europe and Spanish-speaking countries in Latin America; see Long and short scales.

### Tera-

teraTterajoules
* SI prefixes in combination with SI units, for example, giga for 10 9 and tera for 10 12 can give gigawatt (=10 9 W) and terawatt (=10 12 W), respectively.
Tera is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting multiplication by 10 12 or (one trillion short scale; one billion long scale).

### Names of small numbers

The following table lists English language names of small numbers used in the long and short scales, along with the power of 10, engineering notation, and International System of Units (SI) symbols and prefixes.

### Googol

10 100
Other names for googol include ten duotrigintillion on the short scale, ten thousand sexdecillion on the long scale, or ten sexdecilliard on the Peletier long scale.

### International System of Units

SISI unitsSI unit
* SI prefixes in combination with SI units, for example, giga for 10 9 and tera for 10 12 can give gigawatt (=10 9 W) and terawatt (=10 12 W), respectively. To avoid confusion resulting from the coexistence of short and long term in any language, the International System of Units (SI) recommends using the metric prefix to indicate orders of magnitude, but it is only relevant to scientific applications, and not (for example) to finance.

### Continental Europe

mainland EuropeContinentalthe Continent
Countries where the long scale is currently used include most countries in continental Europe and most that are French-speaking, Spanish-speaking (except Spanish-speakers born into an English-speaking culture, e.g. Puerto Rico, because of its influence from English-speaking United States) and Portuguese-speaking countries, except Brazil.

### Hispanophone

Spanish-speaking worldSpanish-speakingSpanish-speaking countries
Countries where the long scale is currently used include most countries in continental Europe and most that are French-speaking, Spanish-speaking (except Spanish-speakers born into an English-speaking culture, e.g. Puerto Rico, because of its influence from English-speaking United States) and Portuguese-speaking countries, except Brazil.

### Puerto Rico

Puerto RicanCommonwealth of Puerto RicoPuerto Rica
Countries where the long scale is currently used include most countries in continental Europe and most that are French-speaking, Spanish-speaking (except Spanish-speakers born into an English-speaking culture, e.g. Puerto Rico, because of its influence from English-speaking United States) and Portuguese-speaking countries, except Brazil.

### Lusophone

LusospherePortuguese-speakingLusophony
Countries where the long scale is currently used include most countries in continental Europe and most that are French-speaking, Spanish-speaking (except Spanish-speakers born into an English-speaking culture, e.g. Puerto Rico, because of its influence from English-speaking United States) and Portuguese-speaking countries, except Brazil.

### Brazil

BRABrasilBrazilian
Countries where the long scale is currently used include most countries in continental Europe and most that are French-speaking, Spanish-speaking (except Spanish-speakers born into an English-speaking culture, e.g. Puerto Rico, because of its influence from English-speaking United States) and Portuguese-speaking countries, except Brazil. The short scale is now used in most English-speaking and Arabic-speaking countries, in Brazil and several other countries.

### English-speaking world

AnglophoneEnglish-speaking countriesEnglish-speaking
The short scale is now used in most English-speaking and Arabic-speaking countries, in Brazil and several other countries.

### List of countries where Arabic is an official language

Arabic-speaking countriesArabic-speaking worldthe full list
The short scale is now used in most English-speaking and Arabic-speaking countries, in Brazil and several other countries.