Long non-coding RNA

Long noncoding RNAlncRNAlncRNAslincRNAlong non-coding RNAslarge intergenic non-coding RNAlincRNAslong coding RNA (lncRNA)long intervening noncoding RNAlong ncRNA
Long non-coding RNAs (long ncRNAs, lncRNA) are a type of RNA, defined as being transcripts with lengths exceeding 200 nucleotides that are not translated into protein.wikipedia
197 Related Articles

Non-coding RNA

RNAncRNAnon-coding RNAs
This somewhat arbitrary limit distinguishes long ncRNAs from small non-coding RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), and other short RNAs.
Abundant and functionally important types of non-coding RNAs include transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), as well as small RNAs such as microRNAs, siRNAs, piRNAs, snoRNAs, snRNAs, exRNAs, scaRNAs and the long ncRNAs such as Xist and HOTAIR.

Human genome

genomehuman DNAhuman geneticist
In 2007 a study found only one-fifth of transcription across the human genome is associated with protein-coding genes, indicating at least four times more long non-coding than coding RNA sequences.
Long non-coding RNAs are RNA molecules longer than 200 bases that do not have protein-coding potential.

RNA

ribonucleic aciddsRNAdouble-stranded RNA
Long non-coding RNAs (long ncRNAs, lncRNA) are a type of RNA, defined as being transcripts with lengths exceeding 200 nucleotides that are not translated into protein.
Long RNAs, also called large RNAs, mainly include long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) and mRNA.

Polyadenylation

polyadenylatedpoly(A) tailpolyA
While the abundance of long ncRNAs was unanticipated, this number represents a conservative lower estimate, since it omitted many singleton transcripts and non-polyadenylated transcripts (tiling array data shows more than 40% of transcripts are non-polyadenylated).
But, for many long noncoding RNAs – a seemingly large group of regulatory RNAs that, for example, includes the RNA Xist, which mediates X chromosome inactivation – a poly(A) tail is part of the mature RNA.

FANTOM

However, it is large-scale complementary DNA (cDNA) sequencing projects such as FANTOM (Functional Annotation of Mammalian cDNA) that reveal the complexity of this transcription.
The non-coding RNA were identified as antisense RNA and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA), poorly understood classes of regulatory RNA.

GreeNC

With this study it was created the Green Non-Coding Database (GreeNC), which is a repository of plant lncRNAs.
In bioinformatics, The Green Non-Coding Database, GreeNC, is a biological database that acts as an archive of plant lncRNAs and annotations.

KCNQ1OT1

DMR1KCNQ1
The abundance and distribution of Alu elements and similar repetitive elements throughout the mammalian genome may be partly due to these functional domains being co-opted into other long ncRNAs during evolution, with the presence of functional repeat sequence domains being a common characteristic of several known long ncRNAs including Kcnq1ot1, Xlsirt and Xist.
KCNQ1 overlapping transcript 1, also known as KCNQ1OT1, is a long non-coding RNA gene found in the KCNQ1 locus.

LncRNAdb

As of January 2016, 294 LncRNAs have been functionally annotated in LncRNAdb (a database of literature described LncRNAs), with the majority of these (183 LncRNAs) being described in humans.
In bioinformatics, lncRNAdb is a biological database of Long non-coding RNAs The database focuses on those RNAs which have been experimentally characterised with a biological function.

BC200 lncRNA

BC200
RNAP III also transcribes a number of additional novel ncRNAs, such as BC2, BC200 and some microRNAs and snoRNAs, in addition to the highly expressed infrastructural ‘housekeeping’ ncRNA genes such as tRNAs, 5S rRNAs and snRNAs.
As a long non-coding RNA, it belongs to a family of RNA transcripts that are not translated into protein (ncRNAs).

Telomeric repeat–containing RNA

telomeric repeat-containing RNAs
Telomeres have been long considered transcriptionally inert DNA-protein complexes until it was recently shown that telomeric repeats may be transcribed as telomeric RNAs (TelRNAs) or telomeric repeat-containing RNAs.
Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) is a long non-coding RNA transcribed from telomeres - repetitive nucleotide regions found on the ends of chromosomes that function to protect DNA from deterioration or fusion with neighboring chromosomes.

PCGEM1

For example, in prostate tumours, PCGEM1 (one of two overexpressed ncRNAs) is correlated with increased proliferation and colony formation suggesting an involvement in regulating cell growth.
Prostate-specific transcript 1 (non-protein coding), also known as PCGEM1, is a long non-coding RNA gene.

List of long non-coding RNA databases

lncRNAslong noncoding RNA databases
*List of long non-coding RNA databases
This is a list of long noncoding RNA databases, which provide information about lncRNAs.

CDKN2BAS

ANRIL
A detailed analysis showed the p15 antisense ncRNA (CDKN2BAS) was able to induce changes to heterochromatin and DNA methylation status of p15 by an unknown mechanism, thereby regulating p15 expression.
* Long noncoding RNA

MALAT1

MALAT1 (also known as NEAT2) was originally identified as an abundantly expressed ncRNA that is upregulated during metastasis of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer and its overexpression is an early prognostic marker for poor patient survival rates.

Transcription (biology)

transcriptiontranscribedtranscriptional
In 2007 a study found only one-fifth of transcription across the human genome is associated with protein-coding genes, indicating at least four times more long non-coding than coding RNA sequences. Long non-coding RNAs (long ncRNAs, lncRNA) are a type of RNA, defined as being transcripts with lengths exceeding 200 nucleotides that are not translated into protein.

Nucleotide

nucleotidesntdinucleotide
Long non-coding RNAs (long ncRNAs, lncRNA) are a type of RNA, defined as being transcripts with lengths exceeding 200 nucleotides that are not translated into protein.

MicroRNA

miRNAmicroRNAsmiRNAs
This somewhat arbitrary limit distinguishes long ncRNAs from small non-coding RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), and other short RNAs.

Small interfering RNA

siRNAsiRNAsshort interfering RNA
This somewhat arbitrary limit distinguishes long ncRNAs from small non-coding RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), and other short RNAs.

Piwi-interacting RNA

piRNApiRNAs21U-RNA
This somewhat arbitrary limit distinguishes long ncRNAs from small non-coding RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), and other short RNAs.

Small nucleolar RNA

snoRNAH/ACA boxC/D box
This somewhat arbitrary limit distinguishes long ncRNAs from small non-coding RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), and other short RNAs.

Complementary DNA

cDNAcDNAscomplementary
However, it is large-scale complementary DNA (cDNA) sequencing projects such as FANTOM (Functional Annotation of Mammalian cDNA) that reveal the complexity of this transcription.

Open reading frame

open reading framesORFORFs
The FANTOM3 project identified ~35,000 non-coding transcripts from ~10,000 distinct loci that bear many signatures of mRNAs, including 5’ capping, splicing, and poly-adenylation, but have little or no open reading frame (ORF).

Tiling array

MeDIP-chiptiled arraysTiling Microarrays
While the abundance of long ncRNAs was unanticipated, this number represents a conservative lower estimate, since it omitted many singleton transcripts and non-polyadenylated transcripts (tiling array data shows more than 40% of transcripts are non-polyadenylated).

Testicle

testestestistesticles
It has been suggested through multiple studies that testis, and neural tissues express the greatest amount of long non-coding RNAs of any tissue type.

Nervous tissue

neural tissuenerve tissueConnective tissue in the peripheral nervous system
It has been suggested through multiple studies that testis, and neural tissues express the greatest amount of long non-coding RNAs of any tissue type.