Loose coupling

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Distributed computing

Field of computer science that studies distributed systems.

(a), (b): a distributed system. (c): a parallel system.

Distributed programming typically falls into one of several basic architectures: client–server, three-tier, n-tier, or peer-to-peer; or categories: loose coupling, or tight coupling.

Message-oriented middleware

Software or hardware infrastructure supporting sending and receiving messages between distributed systems.

(a), (b): a distributed system. (c): a parallel system.

They are different in that RPC- and ORB-based middleware create systems of tightly coupled components, whereas MOM-based systems allow for a loose coupling of components.

Event-driven architecture

Software architecture paradigm promoting the production, detection, consumption of, and reaction to events.

Software_Architecture_Activities

This architectural pattern may be applied by the design and implementation of applications and systems that transmit events among loosely coupled software components and services.

Coupling (computer programming)

Degree of interdependence between software modules; a measure of how closely connected two routines or modules are; the strength of the relationships between modules.

Coupling and cohesion
Conceptual model of coupling

Low coupling often correlates with high cohesion, and vice versa.

John W. Meyer

Sociologist and emeritus professor at Stanford University.

Ibn Khaldun statue in Tunis, Tunisia (1332–1406)

He helped pioneer the sociological new institutionalism, stressing the role of loose coupling in organizational behavior and the conditions under which the diffusion of practices takes place (e.g. Organizational Environments, with W. Richard Scott, Sage 1983).

Kubernetes

Open-source container orchestration system for automating software deployment, scaling, and management.

Google Kubernetes Engine talk at Google Cloud Summit
Kubernetes architecture diagram
Simplified view showing how Services interact with Pod networking in a Kubernetes cluster

Kubernetes is loosely coupled and extensible to meet different workloads.

Microservices

Elements of SOA, by Dirk Krafzig, Karl Banke, and Dirk Slama

A microservice architecture – a variant of the service-oriented architecture (SOA) structural style – arranges an application as a collection of loosely-coupled services.

Intel 80286

16-bit microprocessor that was introduced on February 1, 1982.

An Intel A80286-8 processor with a gray ceramic heat spreader
AMD 80286 (16 MHz version)
Simplified 80286 microarchitecture
Intel 80286 die
Siemens 80286 (10 MHz version)
IBM 80286 (8 MHz version)

It had 134,000 transistors and consisted of four independent units: the address unit, bus unit, instruction unit, and execution unit, organized into a loosely coupled (buffered) pipeline, just as in the 8086.

Supercomputer

Computer with a high level of performance as compared to a general-purpose computer.

The IBM Blue Gene/P supercomputer "Intrepid" at Argonne National Laboratory runs 164,000 processor cores using normal data center air conditioning, grouped in 40 racks/cabinets connected by a high-speed 3D torus network.
Computing power of the top 1 supercomputer each year, measured in FLOPS
A circuit board from the IBM 7030
The CDC 6600. Behind the system console are two of the "arms" of the plus-sign shaped cabinet with the covers opened. Each arm of the machine had up to four such racks. On the right is the cooling system.
A Cray-1 preserved at the Deutsches Museum
A cabinet of the massively parallel Blue Gene/L, showing the stacked blades, each holding many processors
The CPU share of TOP500
Diagram of a three-dimensional torus interconnect used by systems such as Blue Gene, Cray XT3, etc.
The Summit supercomputer was as of November 2018 the fastest supercomputer in the world. With a measured power efficiency of 14.668 GFlops/watt it is also the third most energy efficient in the world.
An IBM HS20 blade
Wide-angle view of the ALMA correlator
Example architecture of a grid computing system connecting many personal computers over the internet
Top supercomputer speeds: logscale speed over 60 years
Top 20 supercomputers in the world (June 2014)
Taiwania 3 is a Taiwanese supercomputer which assisted the scientific community in fighting COVID-19. It was launched in 2020 and has a capacity of about two to three PetaFLOPS.
Distribution of TOP500 supercomputers among different countries, in November 2015

Opportunistic supercomputing is a form of networked grid computing whereby a "super virtual computer" of many loosely coupled volunteer computing machines performs very large computing tasks.

Design Patterns

About the book.

Acquaintance is a weaker relationship than aggregation and suggests much looser coupling between objects, which can often be desirable for maximum maintainability in a design.