# Magnetic field and Lorentz force            and a magnetic field

- Lorentz force

The field is defined by the Lorentz force law and is, at each instant, perpendicular to both the motion of the charge and the force it experiences.

- Magnetic field 9 related topics ## Maxwell's equations    Maxwell's equations are a set of coupled partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.

The equations provide a mathematical model for electric, optical, and radio technologies, such as power generation, electric motors, wireless communication, lenses, radar etc. They describe how electric and magnetic fields are generated by charges, currents, and changes of the fields. ## Electromagnetic induction           Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.

Faraday's law describes two different phenomena: the motional EMF generated by a magnetic force on a moving wire (see Lorentz force), and the transformer EMF this is generated by an electric force due to a changing magnetic field (due to the differential form of the Maxwell–Faraday equation). ## Electromagnetism

Branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

Branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.      The electromagnetic force is carried by electromagnetic fields composed of electric fields and magnetic fields, and it is responsible for electromagnetic radiation such as light.

Electromagnetic phenomena are defined in terms of the electromagnetic force, sometimes called the Lorentz force, which includes both electricity and magnetism as different manifestations of the same phenomenon. ## Electron

Subatomic particle whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

Subatomic particle whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.                  Electrons play an essential role in numerous physical phenomena, such as electricity, magnetism, chemistry and thermal conductivity, and they also participate in gravitational, electromagnetic and weak interactions.

Since an electron has charge, it has a surrounding electric field, and if that electron is moving relative to an observer, said observer will observe it to generate a magnetic field. ## Faraday's law of induction      Faraday's law of induction (briefly, Faraday's law) is a basic law of electromagnetism predicting how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive force (emf)—a phenomenon known as electromagnetic induction.

The equation of Faraday's law can be derived by the Maxwell–Faraday equation (describing transformer emf) and the Lorentz force (describing motional emf). ## Electric charge

Physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

Physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.   A moving charge also produces a magnetic field.

The interaction of electric charges with an electromagnetic field (combination of electric and magnetic fields) is the source of the electromagnetic (or Lorentz) force, which is one of the four fundamental forces in physics. ## Magnetic flux   In physics, specifically electromagnetism, the magnetic flux through a surface is the surface integral of the normal component of the magnetic field B over that surface.

The magnetic interaction is described in terms of a vector field, where each point in space is associated with a vector that determines what force a moving charge would experience at that point (see Lorentz force). ## Electric motor

Electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.

Electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.               Most electric motors operate through the interaction between the motor's magnetic field and electric current in a wire winding to generate force in the form of torque applied on the motor's shaft.

Electric current passing through the wire causes the magnetic field from the field magnet to exert a force (Lorentz force) on it, turning the rotor, which delivers the mechanical output.Windings are wires that are laid in coils, usually wrapped around a laminated, soft, iron, ferromagnetic core so as to form magnetic poles when energized with current. ## Plasma (physics)

One of the four fundamental states of matter.

One of the four fundamental states of matter.           In most cases, the electrons and heavy plasma particles (ions and neutral atoms) separately have a relatively well-defined temperature; that is, their energy distribution function is close to a Maxwellian even in the presence of strong electric or magnetic fields.

The magnetization of the particles within the plasma—magnetized (both ion and electrons are trapped in Larmor orbits by the magnetic field), partially magnetized (the electrons but not the ions are trapped by the magnetic field), non-magnetized (the magnetic field is too weak to trap the particles in orbits but may generate Lorentz forces)