Loudspeaker

speakerloudspeakersspeakersloud speakerspeaker systemdynamic loudspeakerdriversloud speakersmonitorsmoving coil
[[File:Electrodynamic-loudspeaker.png|thumb|Loudspeaker for home use with three types of dynamic drivers 1.wikipedia
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Bass reflex

bass-reflexreflex porttuning ports
3. Woofers The hole below the lowest woofer is a port for a bass reflex system.]]
A bass reflex system (also known as a ported, vented box or reflex port) is a type of loudspeaker enclosure that uses a port (hole) or vent cut into the cabinet and a section of tubing or pipe affixed to the port.

Tweeter

Ribbon Tweetertweetershigh-frequency
Drivers made for reproducing high audio frequencies are called tweeters, those for middle frequencies are called mid-range drivers, and those for low frequencies are called woofers. The drivers are named subwoofers (for very low frequencies); woofers (low frequencies); mid-range speakers (middle frequencies); tweeters (high frequencies); and sometimes supertweeters, optimized for the highest audible frequencies.
A tweeter or treble speaker is a special type of loudspeaker (usually dome or horn-type) that is designed to produce high audio frequencies, typically from around 2,000 Hz to 20,000 Hz (generally considered to be the upper limit of human hearing).

Woofer

woofersbassbass driver
Drivers made for reproducing high audio frequencies are called tweeters, those for middle frequencies are called mid-range drivers, and those for low frequencies are called woofers. The drivers are named subwoofers (for very low frequencies); woofers (low frequencies); mid-range speakers (middle frequencies); tweeters (high frequencies); and sometimes supertweeters, optimized for the highest audible frequencies.
A woofer or bass speaker is a technical term for loudspeaker driver designed to produce low frequency sounds, typically from 40 Hz up to 500 Hz. The name is from the onomatopoeic English word for a dog's bark, "woof" (in contrast to the name used for speakers designed to reproduce high-frequency sounds, tweeter). The most common design for a woofer is the electrodynamic driver, which typically uses a stiff paper cone, driven by a voice coil surrounded by a magnetic field.

Mid-range speaker

mid-rangemidrangemidrange driver
Drivers made for reproducing high audio frequencies are called tweeters, those for middle frequencies are called mid-range drivers, and those for low frequencies are called woofers. The drivers are named subwoofers (for very low frequencies); woofers (low frequencies); mid-range speakers (middle frequencies); tweeters (high frequencies); and sometimes supertweeters, optimized for the highest audible frequencies.
A mid-range speaker is a loudspeaker driver that reproduces sound in the frequency range from 250 to 2000 Hz.

Electronic musical instrument

electronicselectronic instrumentselectronic
Smaller loudspeakers are found in devices such as radios, televisions, portable audio players, computers, and electronic musical instruments.
Such an instrument sounds by outputting an electrical, electronic or digital audio signal that ultimately is plugged into a power amplifier which drives a loudspeaker, creating the sound heard by the performer and listener.

Sound reinforcement system

sound systemsound reinforcementsound systems
Larger loudspeaker systems are used for music, sound reinforcement in theatres and concerts, and in public address systems.
A sound reinforcement system is the combination of microphones, signal processors, amplifiers, and loudspeakers in enclosures all controlled by a mixing console that makes live or pre-recorded sounds louder and may also distribute those sounds to a larger or more distant audience.

Subwoofer

subwooferssub-woofersub
The drivers are named subwoofers (for very low frequencies); woofers (low frequencies); mid-range speakers (middle frequencies); tweeters (high frequencies); and sometimes supertweeters, optimized for the highest audible frequencies.
A subwoofer (or sub) is a woofer, or a complete loudspeaker, which is dedicated to the reproduction of low-pitched audio frequencies known as bass and sub-bass.

Audio crossover

crossoveractive crossovercrossover filter
When multiple drivers are used in a system, a "filter network", called a crossover, separates the incoming signal into different frequency ranges and routes them to the appropriate driver.
Crossovers are used in loudspeaker cabinets, power amplifiers in consumer electronics (hi-fi, home cinema sound and car audio) and pro audio and musical instrument amplifier products.

Moving iron speaker

moving iron driversbalanced armaturesmoving iron cores
Loudspeaker driver of the type pictured are termed "dynamic" (short for electrodynamic) to distinguish them from earlier drivers (i.e., moving iron speaker), or speakers using piezoelectric or electrostatic systems, or any of several other sorts.
The moving iron speaker was the earliest type of electric loudspeaker.

Electrostatic loudspeaker

electrostatic loudspeakerselectrostaticelectrostatic speaker
Loudspeaker driver of the type pictured are termed "dynamic" (short for electrodynamic) to distinguish them from earlier drivers (i.e., moving iron speaker), or speakers using piezoelectric or electrostatic systems, or any of several other sorts.
An electrostatic loudspeaker (ESL) is a loudspeaker design in which sound is generated by the force exerted on a membrane suspended in an electrostatic field.

Transducer

transducerstransductiontransduce
A loudspeaker (or loud-speaker or speaker) is an electroacoustic transducer; which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound.
Bidirectional transducers convert physical phenomena to electrical signals and also convert electrical signals into physical phenomena. An example of an inherently bidirectional transducer is an antenna, which can convert radio waves (electromagnetic waves) into an electrical signal to be processed by a radio receiver, or translate an electrical signal from a transmitter into radio waves. Another example is voice coils, which are used in loudspeakers to translate an electrical audio signal into sound and in dynamic microphones to translate sound waves into an audio signal.

Diaphragm (acoustics)

diaphragmmembranespeaker cone
When an alternating current electrical audio signal is applied to its voice coil, a coil of wire suspended in a circular gap between the poles of a permanent magnet, the coil is forced to move rapidly back and forth due to Faraday's law of induction, which causes a diaphragm (usually conically shaped) attached to the coil to move back and forth, pushing on the air to create sound waves.
Examples of this type of diaphragm are loudspeaker cones and earphone diaphragms and are found in air horns.

Audio signal

audioaudio channelchannel
A loudspeaker (or loud-speaker or speaker) is an electroacoustic transducer; which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound. When an alternating current electrical audio signal is applied to its voice coil, a coil of wire suspended in a circular gap between the poles of a permanent magnet, the coil is forced to move rapidly back and forth due to Faraday's law of induction, which causes a diaphragm (usually conically shaped) attached to the coil to move back and forth, pushing on the air to create sound waves.
Loudspeakers or headphones convert an electrical audio signal back into sound.

Piezoelectric speaker

actuatorLoudspeakerpiezoelectric
Loudspeaker driver of the type pictured are termed "dynamic" (short for electrodynamic) to distinguish them from earlier drivers (i.e., moving iron speaker), or speakers using piezoelectric or electrostatic systems, or any of several other sorts.
A piezoelectric speaker (also known as a piezo bender due to its mode of operation, and sometimes colloquially called a "piezo", buzzer, crystal loudspeaker or beep speaker) is a loudspeaker that uses the piezoelectric effect for generating sound.

Chester Williams Rice

The most widely used type of speaker in the 2010s is the dynamic speaker, invented in 1925 by Edward W. Kellogg and Chester W. Rice.
Chester Williams Rice (December 16, 1888 – 1951) was an electrical engineer who was the joint inventor in 1925 of the moving coil loudspeaker along with Edward W. Kellogg.

Telephone

phonetelephonesLocal Telephone Service
Johann Philipp Reis installed an electric loudspeaker in his telephone in 1861; it was capable of reproducing clear tones, but also could reproduce muffled speech after a few revisions.
The transmitter converts the sound waves to electrical signals which are sent through a telephone network to the receiving telephone, which converts the signals into audible sound in the receiver or sometimes a loudspeaker.

Edward W. Kellogg

The most widely used type of speaker in the 2010s is the dynamic speaker, invented in 1925 by Edward W. Kellogg and Chester W. Rice.
He was the joint inventor of the moving coil loudspeaker in 1925 along with Chester W. Rice at General Electric, and independently by Edward Wente at Bell Labs.

Walter H. Schottky

SchottkyWalter Schottky
About this same period, Walter H. Schottky invented the first ribbon loudspeaker together with Dr. Erwin Gerlach.
Walter Hans Schottky (23 July 1886 – 4 March 1976) was a German physicist who played a major early role in developing the theory of electron and ion emission phenomena, invented the screen-grid vacuum tube in 1915 while working at Siemens, co-invented the ribbon microphone and ribbon loudspeaker along with Dr. Erwin Gerlach in 1924 and later made many significant contributions in the areas of semiconductor devices, technical physics and technology.

Magnavox

Magnavox Corp.Magnavox Research LaboratoriesMagnavox TV
Being unsuccessful in selling their product to telephone companies, in 1915 they changed their target market to radios and public address systems, and named their product Magnavox.
The predecessor to Magnavox was founded in 1911 by Edwin Pridham and Peter L. Jensen, co-inventors of the moving-coil loudspeaker at their lab in Napa, California under United States Patent number 1,105,924 for telephone receivers.

Electromagnet

electromagnetselectro-magnetbipolar magnets
These first loudspeakers used electromagnets, because large, powerful permanent magnets were generally not available at a reasonable price.
Electromagnets are widely used as components of other electrical devices, such as motors, generators, electromechanical solenoids, relays, loudspeakers, hard disks, MRI machines, scientific instruments, and magnetic separation equipment.

Microphone

microphonescondenser microphonedynamic microphone
The dynamic speaker operates on the same basic principle as a dynamic microphone, but in reverse, to produce sound from an electrical signal.
Dynamic microphones use the same dynamic principle as in a loudspeaker, only reversed.

Altec Lansing

AltecElectrical Research Products, Inc.Altec Electronics
Altec Lansing introduced the 604, which became their most famous coaxial Duplex driver, in 1943.
Their primary products are loudspeakers and associated audio electronics for professional, home, automotive and multimedia applications.

Edgar Villchur

In 1954, Edgar Villchur developed the acoustic suspension principle of loudspeaker design in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Edgar Marion Villchur (28 May 1917 – 17 October 2011) was an American inventor, educator, and writer widely known for his 1954 invention of the acoustic suspension loudspeaker which revolutionized the field of high-fidelity equipment.

Acoustic suspension

Acoustic suspension loudspeakeracoustic suspension wooferair-suspension loudspeakers
In 1954, Edgar Villchur developed the acoustic suspension principle of loudspeaker design in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Acoustic suspension (air suspension or sealed box) is a type of loudspeaker speaker enclosure design which uses one or more loudspeaker drivers mounted in a sealed box or cabinet.

Henry Kloss

AdventKloss VideoAdvent Corporation
He and his partner Henry Kloss formed the Acoustic Research company to manufacture and market speaker systems using this principle.
Henry Kloss (February 21, 1929—January 31, 2002) was a prominent American audio engineer and entrepreneur who helped advance high fidelity loudspeaker and radio receiver technology beginning in the 1950s.