A report on Louis Brandeis

Photo of Louis Brandeis (around 1900)
Brandeis in his canoe, circa 1916
Louis Brandeis, 1915
1925 B&O Railroad bond certificate owned by Louis D. Brandeis
Brandeis (center) in his Boston office, 1916
President Woodrow Wilson, 1919
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Time cover, 19 Oct 1925
The Louis D. Brandeis School of Law at the University of Louisville opened in 1846 and was named for Justice Brandeis in 1997.

American lawyer and associate justice on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1916 to 1939.

- Louis Brandeis

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Supreme Court of the United States

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Highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States.

Highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States.

The Court lacked its own building until 1935; from 1791 to 1801, it met in Philadelphia's City Hall.
The Royal Exchange, New York City, the first meeting place of the Supreme Court
Chief Justice Marshall (1801–1835)
The U.S. Supreme Court Building, current home of the Supreme Court, which opened in 1935.
The Hughes Court in 1937, photographed by Erich Salomon. Members include Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes (center), Louis Brandeis, Benjamin N. Cardozo, Harlan Stone, Owen Roberts, and the "Four Horsemen" Pierce Butler, James Clark McReynolds, George Sutherland, and Willis Van Devanter, who opposed New Deal policies.
Justices of the Supreme Court with President George W. Bush (center-right) in October 2005. The justices (left to right) are: Ruth Bader Ginsburg, David Souter, Antonin Scalia, John Paul Stevens, John Roberts, Sandra Day O'Connor, Anthony Kennedy, Clarence Thomas, and Stephen Breyer
John Roberts giving testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee during the 2005 hearings on his nomination to be chief justice
Ruth Bader Ginsburg giving testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee during the 1993 hearings on her nomination to be an associate justice
The interior of the United States Supreme Court
The first four female justices: O'Connor, Sotomayor, Ginsburg, and Kagan.
The current Roberts Court justices (since October 2020): Front row (left to right): Samuel Alito, Clarence Thomas, Chief Justice John Roberts, Stephen Breyer, and Sonia Sotomayor. Back row (left to right): Brett Kavanaugh, Elena Kagan, Neil Gorsuch, and Amy Coney Barrett.
Percentage of cases decided unanimously and by a one-vote margin from 1971 to 2016
The present U.S. Supreme Court building as viewed from the front
From the 1860s until the 1930s, the court sat in the Old Senate Chamber of the U.S. Capitol.
Seth P. Waxman at oral argument presents his case and answers questions from the justices.
Inscription on the wall of the Supreme Court Building from Marbury v. Madison, in which Chief Justice John Marshall outlined the concept of judicial review

The first Catholic justice was Roger Taney in 1836, and 1916 saw the appointment of the first Jewish justice, Louis Brandeis.

Felix Frankfurter

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Austrian-American lawyer, professor, and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

Austrian-American lawyer, professor, and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

U.S. Navy Judge Advocate General logo
Franklin Roosevelt in the early 1930s
Frankfurter (right) giving testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee during the January 1939 hearings on his nomination to be an associate Justice of the Supreme Court

He became lifelong friends with Walter Lippmann and Horace Kallen, became an editor of the Harvard Law Review, and graduated first in his class with one of the best academic records since Louis Brandeis.

Harvard Law Review

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Law review published by an independent student group at Harvard Law School.

Law review published by an independent student group at Harvard Law School.

Volume 1 of the Harvard Law Review (1887–1888).

The establishment of the journal was largely due to the support of Louis Brandeis, then a recent Harvard Law School alumnus and Boston attorney who would later go on to become a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

The Hughes Court, 1932–1937. Front row: Justices Brandeis and Van Devanter, Chief Justice Hughes, and Justices McReynolds and Sutherland.
Back row: Justices Roberts, Butler, Stone, and Cardozo.

Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937

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Legislative initiative proposed by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt to add more justices to the U.S. Supreme Court in order to obtain favorable rulings regarding New Deal legislation that the Court had ruled unconstitutional.

Legislative initiative proposed by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt to add more justices to the U.S. Supreme Court in order to obtain favorable rulings regarding New Deal legislation that the Court had ruled unconstitutional.

The Hughes Court, 1932–1937. Front row: Justices Brandeis and Van Devanter, Chief Justice Hughes, and Justices McReynolds and Sutherland.
Back row: Justices Roberts, Butler, Stone, and Cardozo.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt. His dissatisfaction over Supreme Court decisions holding New Deal programs unconstitutional prompted him to seek methods to change the way the court functioned.
Associate Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Holmes's loss of half his pension pay due to New Deal legislation after his 1932 retirement is believed to have dissuaded Justices Van Devanter and Sutherland from departing the bench.
Associate Justice Owen J. Roberts. The balance of the Supreme Court in 1935 caused the Roosevelt administration much concern over how Roberts would adjudicate New Deal challenges.
Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes. Hughes believed the primary objection of the Supreme Court to the New Deal was its poorly drafted legislation.
Attorney General Homer Stillé Cummings. His failure to prevent poorly-drafted New Deal legislation from reaching Congress is considered his greatest shortcoming as Attorney General.
Associate Justice James Clark McReynolds. A legal opinion authored by McReynolds in 1914, while U.S. Attorney General, is the most probable source for Roosevelt's court reform plan.
Senate Majority Leader Joseph T. Robinson. Entrusted by President Roosevelt with the court reform bill's passage, his unexpected death doomed the proposed legislation.

Opposed to them were the liberal Justices Louis Brandeis, Benjamin Cardozo and Harlan Fiske Stone, dubbed "The Three Musketeers".

Benjamin N. Cardozo

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American lawyer and jurist who served on the New York Court of Appeals from 1914 to 1932 and as an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1932 until his death in 1938.

American lawyer and jurist who served on the New York Court of Appeals from 1914 to 1932 and as an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1932 until his death in 1938.

Justice Cardozo in his judicial robes
Cardozo’s Supreme Court nomination
Cardozo's gravesite
Cardozo had an apartment in this building in Washington, D.C.

The first was Louis Brandeis, whose family was Ashkenazi.

Douglas in the 1930s

William O. Douglas

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American jurist who served as an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, who was known for his strong progressive views, and is often cited as the U.S. Supreme Court's most liberal justice ever.

American jurist who served as an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, who was known for his strong progressive views, and is often cited as the U.S. Supreme Court's most liberal justice ever.

Douglas in the 1930s
Douglas's Supreme Court nomination
Justice William O. Douglas
1973 Supreme Court group photo with Justice Douglas sitting second from the left on the front row
Douglas and his son William O. Douglas, Jr. in Washington, D.C. on April 17, 1939
Grave of William O. Douglas at Arlington National Cemetery.
William O. Douglas Wilderness outside Yakima, Washington
The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal at Lock 20

After serving as the third chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission, Douglas was successfully nominated to the Supreme Court in 1939, succeeding Justice Louis Brandeis.

Three Musketeers (Supreme Court)

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The nickname given to three liberal members during the 1932–37 terms of the United States Supreme Court, who generally supported the New Deal agenda of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

The nickname given to three liberal members during the 1932–37 terms of the United States Supreme Court, who generally supported the New Deal agenda of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

They were Justices Louis Brandeis, Benjamin N. Cardozo, and Harlan Fiske Stone.

The New Deal was the inspiration for President Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society in the 1960s: Johnson (on right) headed the Texas NYA and was elected to Congress in 1938

New Deal

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Series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms, and regulations enacted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the United States between 1933 and 1939.

Series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms, and regulations enacted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the United States between 1933 and 1939.

The New Deal was the inspiration for President Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society in the 1960s: Johnson (on right) headed the Texas NYA and was elected to Congress in 1938
US annual real GDP from 1910 to 1960, with the years of the Great Depression (1929–1939) highlighted
Top left: The TVA Act signed into law in 1933
Top right: President Franklin D. Roosevelt led the New Dealers;
Bottom: A public mural from the arts program
Unemployment rate in the United States from 1910–1960, with the years of the Great Depression (1929–1939) highlighted (accurate data begins in 1939)
1935 cartoon by Vaughn Shoemaker in which he parodied the New Deal as a card game with alphabetical agencies
Crowd at New York's American Union Bank during a bank run early in the Great Depression
Roosevelt's ebullient public personality, conveyed through his declaration that "the only thing we have to fear is fear itself" and his "fireside chats" on the radio did a great deal to help restore the nation's confidence
Public Works Administration Project Bonneville Dam
Pumping water by hand from the sole water supply in this section of Wilder, Tennessee (Tennessee Valley Authority, 1942)
National Recovery Administration Blue Eagle
Manufacturing employment in the U.S. from 1920 to 1940
A poster publicizing Social Security benefits
Works Progress Administration (WPA) poster promoting the LaGuardia Airport project (1937)
Female factory workers in 1942, Long Beach, California
National debt as gross national product climbs from 20% to 40% under President Herbert Hoover; levels off under Roosevelt; and soars during World War II from Historical States US (1976)
Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) camp for unemployed women in Maine, 1934
Anti-relief protest sign near Davenport, Iowa by Arthur Rothstein, 1940
WPA employed 2 to 3 million unemployed at unskilled labor
U.S. GDP annual pattern and long-term trend (1920–1940) in billions of constant dollars
Francis Perkins looks on as Roosevelt signs the National Labor Relations Act
The federal government commissioned a series of public murals from the artists it employed: William Gropper's Construction of a Dam (1939) is characteristic of much of the art of the 1930s, with workers seen in heroic poses, laboring in unison to complete a great public project
"Created Equal": Act I, Scene 3 of Spirit of 1776, Boston (Federal Theatre Project, 1935)
The WPA hired unemployed teachers to provide free adult education programs
Surplus Commodities Program, 1936

Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis, an influential adviser to many New Dealers, argued that "bigness" (referring, presumably, to corporations) was a negative economic force, producing waste and inefficiency.

Harlan F. Stone

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American lawyer and jurist who served as an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1925 to 1941 and then as the 12th chief justice of the United States from 1941 until his death in 1946.

American lawyer and jurist who served as an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1925 to 1941 and then as the 12th chief justice of the United States from 1941 until his death in 1946.

Birthplace of Stone
Harlan F. Stone commemorative stamp, issued in 1948

On the Taft Court, Stone joined with Justices Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. and Louis Brandeis in calling for judicial restraint and deference to the legislative will.

Samuel Warren, c1875

The Right to Privacy (article)

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The Right to Privacy (4 Harvard L.R. 193 (Dec.

The Right to Privacy (4 Harvard L.R. 193 (Dec.

Samuel Warren, c1875
Louis Brandeis, c1916

15, 1890)) is a law review article written by Samuel D. Warren II and Louis Brandeis, and published in the 1890 Harvard Law Review.