Louis I of Hungary

Louis I as depicted in the Chronica Hungarorum
Louis's birth depicted in the Illuminated Chronicle
Charles, Margrave of Moravia (the future Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor), the father of Louis's first wife, Margaret of Bohemia (from the Gelnhausen Codex)
Louis's sister-in-law, Joanna I of Naples, whom he regarded as a "husband-killer" after the assassination of his brother, Andrew, Duke of Calabria (from a manuscript of Giovanni Boccaccio's De mulieribus claris)
Reconstruction of the Castle of Diósgyőr, which was one of his favourite hunting castles
Louis I of Hungary from the 1360s Chronicon Pictum
Louis I's golden florin, minted in the 1350s, depicting King Saint Ladislaus
The citizens of Zadar receive Louis (embossment on a contemporaneous reliquary)
Peace-treaty of Zadar
The Golden Cloak clasp, Hungarian Chapel in the Cathedral of Aachen
The medieval fortress of Vidin in Bulgaria, the seat of Louis's governors between 1365 and 1369
Louis's coat of arms showing, clockwise from upper left: the ancient arms of Hungary dimidiated with France; the Polish eagle; the modern arms of Hungary; the Dalmatian lions' heads.
Lands ruled by Louis: Hungary and Poland united under Louis's reign are colored red, the vassal states and the temporarily controlled territories are coloured light red
Hungarian coat of arms with Angevin helmet and Polish Coat of Arms (1340s)
Louis on Heroes Square, Budapest
Louis's second wife, Elizabeth of Bosnia and their three daughters
alt=A crowned young man sitting on a throne |Louis's first royal seal, lost during a campaign in Bosnia in 1363
alt=A crowned man sitting on a throne |Louis's second royal seal, introduced in 1363
Privilege of Kassa (Košice)

King of Hungary and Croatia from 1342 and King of Poland from 1370.

- Louis I of Hungary

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Joanna I of Naples

Queen of Naples, and Countess of Provence and Forcalquier from 1343 to 1382; she was also Princess of Achaea from 1373 to 1381.

Queen Joanna I, fresco by Niccolò di Tommaso (1360 circa)
Joanna I with her grandfather King Robert the Wise.
Coat of arms of the House of Anjou-Naples.
Miniature depicting Queen Sancia of Mallorca caressing her stepgranddaughters Joanna and Maria, presented to her by their mother Marie of Valois.
Murder of Andrew, Duke of Calabria, painted by Karl Briullov.
Castel Nuovo in Naples.
Provençal coin of "King Louis and Queen Joanna" (L· REX- E· I· REG), struck between 1349 and 1362.
James IV of Majorca
Queen Joanna's personal Seal.
Castel dell'Ovo in Naples.
The Torre Normanno-Sveva, Castello del Parco, Nocera Inferiore.
The conquest of Naples by Charles of Durazzo, who defeated the forces of Otto of Brunswick in 1381.
Bas-relief of Queen Joanna at Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume.
Modern view of the entrance of the Castle of Muro Lucano.
Miniature of Queen Joanna from a manuscript of Giovanni Boccaccio's De mulieribus claris. Currently in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France.
Another miniature of Queen Joanna in De mulieribus claris. Currently in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France.

Joanna's personal life crucially affected the political stability of the Kingdom of Naples (murder of her first husband Andrew in 1345, the invasions of King Louis I of Hungary as justification to avenge the death of his brother, and Joanna's three later marriages, with Louis of Taranto, James IV, titular King of Majorca and Otto, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen) and undermined her position with the Holy See, moreover after, during the Western Schism, she chose to support the Avignon Papacy against Pope Urban VI, who in retaliation declared her a heretic and dethroned her on 11 May 1380.

Hungarian nobility

The Hungarian nobility consisted of a privileged group of individuals, most of whom owned landed property, in the Kingdom of Hungary.

The legendary seven Hungarian chiefs depicted in the Illuminated Chronicle
The remains of the 11th-century earthen fort at Szabolcs
Hunt, an ancestor of the Hont-Pázmány kindred, depicted in the Chronicon Pictum
The Golden Bull of 1222
Árva Castle (now Oravský hrad in Slovakia), one of the royal fortresses built after the Mongol invasion of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary in the second half of the 13th century
Léka Castle (now Burg Lockenhaus in Austria), built before 1300
Insignia of the Order of Saint George
The Hunyadi family's castle at Vajdahunyad
Gravestone of Stibor the Younger (died 1434) in Budapest History Museum
Thurzó family's coat of arms from the 15th century on the ceiling of Zápolya family chapel in Csütörtökhely, today in Slovakia
Hungary divided into three parts in 1572: Royal Hungary (and Croatia), Ottoman Hungary, and the western territories of the Principality of Transylvania
Paul I. Esterházy
The Esterházy's palace Eszterháza at Fertőd
Tivadar Kubinyi member of the Royal Hungarian Bodyguard
Francis I being crowned King of Hungary in the circle of Hungarian aristocrats, 1792
János Malonyay in a typical Hungarian noble dress, 1829
King Francis Joseph and members of the Hungarian nobility during the Millenium Celebrations of 1896
The Ancestors' Hall with the portraits of the Nádasdy family, Nádasdladány Mansion, late 19th century
Hungarian Prime Minister Count István Bethlen and Hungarian Finance Minister Tibor Kállay, 1923
Ruins of a demolished Hungarian neoclassical mansion in Alcsút

Louis I of Hungary introduced an entail system and enacted the principle of "one and the selfsame liberty" of all noblemen.

Croatia in personal union with Hungary

The Kingdom of Croatia (Regnum Croatiae; Kraljevina Hrvatska, Hrvatsko kraljevstvo, Hrvatska zemlja) entered a personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary in 1102, after a period of rule of kings from the Trpimirović and Svetoslavić dynasties and a succession crisis following the death of king Demetrius Zvonimir.

Kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia (dark green) in 1260
Croatian Kingdom c. 1097, before the Battle of Gvozd Mountain
Kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia (dark green) in 1260
Death of the Last Croatian King, by Oton Iveković
Coin of Louis II of Hungary with inscription on Latin: "Louis by the grace of God King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia"
One of the oldest maps depicting Croatia, from the Tabula Rogeriana in 1154
Siege of Zadar in 1202 by the Crusaders and Venetians
Kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia in the late 12th century (light green)
Law codex of Vinodol, a Croatian law code in Glagolitic script from 1288
Seal of Paul I Šubić of Bribir, "Paulus de Breberio banus Croatorum D[omi]n[u]s et Bosnae" (Paul of Bribir, Ban of the Croats and Lord of Bosnia).
Depiction of Paul I Šubić on the Chest of Saint Simeon in Zadar
The dominion of Paul I Šubić in 1312 (Croatia, Bosnia, and Hum), shortly after the capture of Zadar from Venice
Croatia in the middle of the 14th century
Realm of Hrvoje Vukčić in the early 15th century
Ladislaus Viceroy in Croatia and Herzog of Split, Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić, Grand Duke of Bosnia as depicted in Hrvoje's Missal (1404)
Croatia and Ottoman expansion in the region in 1500
Petar Berislavić monument in Trogir
Battle of Krbava Field in 1493
The Cetin Charter from 1 January 1527
"Illyrian" coat of arms (considered oldest known symbol of Croatia)
Coat of arms of Croatia in the 14th and 15th century (later used as coat of arms of Dalmatia)
Coat of arms in the late 15th and 16th century (first appeared in c. 1495)

The change was a consequence of the victory of Louis I against the Republic of Venice and the Treaty of Zadar, by which the Venetian Republic lost its influence over Dalmatian coastal cities.

Charles I of Hungary

King of Hungary and Croatia from 1308 to his death.

Charles depicted in the Illuminated Chronicle
Charles's arrival in Hungary, depicted in the Illuminated Chronicle
The provinces ruled by the oligarchs (powerful lords) in the early 14th century
The Battle of Rozgony depicted in the Illuminated Chronicle: in this battle, Charles defeated the sons of Amadeus Aba on 15 June 1312
Coats of Arms of Charles I of Anjou, King of Hungary
A gold forint of Charles, based on the Italian florin made popular by the Republic of Florence in the 13th century
The attempt of Felician Záh on the royal family, depicted in the Illuminated Chronicle
Battle of Posada: Wallachian (Romanian) warriors ambushed and defeated the Hungarian mounted knights in a narrow valley.
Romantic painting Charles' army wear hussar clothes of the 17th century, by József Molnár
Bač Fortress, founded by Charles I
Charles's statue on Heroes' Square in Budapest: the king holds his coat-of-arms which units the Árpád stripes with the Capetians' fleurs-de-lis
alt=A crowned woman, surrounded by two bearded men, meets a crowned man while two young men are blowing trumpets |The betrothal of Charles to Elisabeth of Poland depicted in Illuminated Chronicle
alt=A crowned woman with two crowned children on her right and three children on her left|Charles's wife, Elisabeth of Poland and her five children depicted in Illuminated Chronicle

Charles's efforts to reunite Hungary, together with his administrative and economic reforms, established the basis for the achievements of his successor, Louis the Great.

Kingdom of Naples

State that ruled the part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816.

The territory of the Kingdom of Naples in 1454
Naples in the 15th century.
The territory of the Kingdom of Naples in 1454
Provinces of the "Kingdom of Naples"
Territorial evolution of the "Kingdom of Naples"
1282–1442 Angevin flag of Naples
The kingdom adopted the flag of the Spanish Empire when the Habsburg Charles V became King of Naples in 1516.
1714–1738 Flag changed after Charles VI became King.
1738–1806; 1815–1816 Flag changed after Charles VII became King of Naples. Flag was reinstated as the flag of Naples after the Napoleonic Wars.
1806–1808 Flag of Naples changed after Joseph Bonaparte became king.
1808–1811 Flag of Naples changed after Joachim Murat became king.
1811–1815 Flag of Naples changed

Joan's reign was contested by Louis the Great, the Angevin King of Hungary, who captured the kingdom several times (1348–1352).

Andrew, Duke of Calabria

Andrew's coat of arms
Andrew with his mother and brothers
Murder of Andrew, Duke of Calabria, painted by Karl Briullov.

Andrew, Duke of Calabria (30 October 1327 – 18 September 1345) was the first husband of Joanna I of Naples, and a son of Charles I of Hungary and brother of Louis I of Hungary.

Duke of Transylvania

Title of nobility four times granted to a son or a brother of the Hungarian monarch.

Kingdom of Hungary in the late 13th century
Béla, as crowned king
Stephen is crowned junior king
Louis's first royal seal
Stephen with his mother and brothers

The duke of the third creation, Louis, did not administer the province.


Fifth largest city of Hungary, located on the slopes of the Mecsek mountains in the south-west of the country, close to its border with Croatia.

Early Christian Necropolis of Pécs (Sopianae)
Remnants of a Paleochristian Church, 4th century AD
The Barbakán
Crypt of the cathedral from the Middle Ages
Stone shield pattern of Pécs with Old Hungarian script (circa 1250 AD)
The mosque of Gázi Kászim pasa (pasha Qasim the Victorious)
Yakovalı Hasan Paşa Mosque
Pécs Main Square before 2009
County Hall of Baranya
Széchenyi Square
Cella Septichora
The Barbakán
The cross at Tettye
Zsolnay Museum. The House from the 13th Century.
National Theatre in Pécs.
Csontváry Museum
Lyceum Church in Király Street
The most known product of Pécs is the Zsolnay Porcelain - Alhambra vase by Tádé Sikorski (1884)
Trains at Pécs Central Station
Volvo 7900A bus on Line 2A in downtown
International airport.
Zoltán Gera
László Sólyom, Hungarian President 2005-2010
Archives of Pécs
Inner city
Mosque of Pasha Qasim
Király Street
University of Pécs
Király Street
Posta Palace
Eosin glaze of Zsolnay fountain
Jókai Square
City Centre
Nádor Hotel
Havihegy Chapel
Ruins in Tettye
Yakovalı Hasan Paşa Mosque
Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Pécs
University of Pécs - Faculty of Humanity and Natural Sciences
Lajos Kossuth statue
Kossuth square and Great Synagogue
French (Napoleonic War) monument
Aerial view
Pannonpower Energy Station
Logo of the 2010 European Capital of Culture

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Pécs was founded in 1009 by Stephen I, and the first university in Hungary was founded in Pécs in 1367 by Louis I the Great.

Casimir III the Great

Casimir III the Great (Kazimierz III Wielki; 30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370) reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370.

Casimir's tomb effigy in Wawel
Poland (red) at the end of the reign of Casimir III (1370); Silesia (yellow) had been lost, but the kingdom was expanding to the east
Wiec in reign of Casimir the Great
Casimir's depiction on a seal
Casimir III the Great by Jan Matejko
Casimir the Great by Leopold Loeffler
Casimir III's tomb at Wawel Cathedral
Document issued by Casimir the Great granting the Armenian bishop Gregory (Գրիգոր) the right to stay and preach in Lviv, 1367
Royal seal, 1334

When he died in 1370 from an injury received while hunting, his nephew, King Louis I of Hungary, succeeded him as king of Poland in personal union with Hungary.

Elizabeth of Poland, Queen of Hungary

Alleged representation of Queen Elizabeth on the keystone in Hetmańska House in Kraków
Elisabeth's marriage to Charles Robert of Hungary
Reliquary Shrine of Elizabeth of Poland, attributed to Jean de Touyl, ca. 1350

Elizabeth of Poland (Erzsébet, Elżbieta; 1305 – 29 December 1380) was Queen of Hungary by marriage to Charles I of Hungary, and regent of Poland from 1370 to 1376 during the reign of her son Louis I.