Louis Pasteur

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Louis Pasteur (, ; December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.wikipedia
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Pasteurization

pasteurizedunpasteurizedpasteurised
Louis Pasteur (, ; December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization. He is best known to the general public for his invention of the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial contamination, a process now called pasteurization.
The process was named after the French scientist Louis Pasteur, whose research in the 1880s demonstrated that thermal processing would inactivate unwanted microorganisms in wine.

Vaccination

vaccinationsvaccinatedvaccinating
Louis Pasteur (, ; December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
Louis Pasteur furthered the concept through his work in microbiology.

Spontaneous generation

spontaneously generatedspontaneously generatesarise spontaneously
Pasteur was responsible for disproving the doctrine of spontaneous generation.
Though challenged in the 17th and 18th centuries by the experiments of Francesco Redi and Lazzaro Spallanzani, spontaneous generation was not disproved until the work of Louis Pasteur and John Tyndall in the mid-19th century.

Milk

cow's milkcow milkwhole milk
He is best known to the general public for his invention of the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial contamination, a process now called pasteurization.
In 1863, French chemist and biologist Louis Pasteur invented pasteurization, a method of killing harmful bacteria in beverages and food products.

Germ theory of disease

germ theorygermsgerm
His medical discoveries provided direct support for the germ theory of disease and its application in clinical medicine.
A transitional period began in the late 1850s with the work of Louis Pasteur.

Anthrax

cutaneous anthraxanthrax sporespulmonary anthrax
He reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax.
The French scientist Louis Pasteur developed the first effective vaccine in 1881.

École normale supérieure (Paris)

École Normale SupérieureÉcole NormaleENS
Later in 1842, Pasteur took the entrance test for the École Normale Supérieure.
This helped it gain some stability, which was further established under the direction of Louis Pasteur.

Racemic mixture

racemicracemateracemates
Then he observed that, in racemic mixtures of tartrates, half of the crystals were right-handed and half were left-handed.
The first known racemic mixture was racemic acid, which Louis Pasteur found to be a mixture of the two enantiomeric isomers of tartaric acid.

Joseph Lister

ListerLord ListerSir Joseph Lister
He proposed preventing the entry of micro-organisms into the human body, leading Joseph Lister to develop antiseptic methods in surgery.
Applying Louis Pasteur's advances in microbiology, Lister championed the use of carbolic acid as an antiseptic, so that it became the first widely used antiseptic in surgery.

Tartaric acid

tartaric(R,R)-tartratetartrate
Early in his career, his investigation of tartaric acid resulted in the first resolution of what is now called optical isomers.
Louis Pasteur continued this research in 1847 by investigating the shapes of sodium ammonium tartrate crystals, which he found to be chiral.

Pasteur effect

The lower rate of fermentation aerobically became known as the Pasteur effect.
The effect was discovered in 1857 by Louis Pasteur, who showed that aerating yeasted broth causes yeast cell growth to increase, while conversely, fermentation rate decreases.

Agostino Bassi

Bassi
In the early 19th century, Agostino Bassi had shown that muscardine was caused by a fungus that infected silkworms.
He preceded Louis Pasteur in the discovery that microorganisms can be the cause of disease (the germ theory of disease).

Félix Archimède Pouchet

He received a particularly stern criticism from Félix Archimède Pouchet, who was director of the Rouen Museum of Natural History.
Félix-Archimède Pouchet (26 August 1800 – 6 December 1872) was a French naturalist and a leading proponent of spontaneous generation of life from non-living materials, and as such an opponent of Louis Pasteur's germ theory.

Marie Pasteur

After serving briefly as professor of physics at the Dijon Lycée in 1848, he became professor of chemistry at the University of Strasbourg, where he met and courted Marie Laurent, daughter of the university's rector in 1849.
Marie Pasteur, née Laurent (15 January 1826 in Clermont-Ferrand, France – 28 September 1910 in Paris), was the scientific assistant and co-worker of her spouse, the famous French chemist and bacteriologist Louis Pasteur.

Antoine Jérôme Balard

Antoine BalardAJ BalardBalard
In 1846, he was appointed professor of physics at the Collège de Tournon (now called ) in Ardèche, but the chemist Antoine Jérôme Balard wanted him back at the École Normale Supérieure as a graduate laboratory assistant (agrégé préparateur). He joined Balard and simultaneously started his research in crystallography and in 1847, he submitted his two theses, one in chemistry and the other in physics.
Balard also had Louis Pasteur as a pupil when Pasteur was only 26 years old.

Lazzaro Spallanzani

SpallanzaniSpallanzani, Lazzaro
Francesco Redi and Lazzaro Spallanzani had provided some evidence against spontaneous generation in the 17th and 18th centuries, respectively.
His research of biogenesis paved the way for the downfall of preformationism theory (the idea that organisms develop from miniature versions of themselves), though the final death blow to preformationism was dealt by Pasteur.

University of Strasbourg

StrasbourgStrassburgUniversity of Strassburg
After serving briefly as professor of physics at the Dijon Lycée in 1848, he became professor of chemistry at the University of Strasbourg, where he met and courted Marie Laurent, daughter of the university's rector in 1849.
Louis Pasteur (1822–1895)

Lactic acid fermentation

lacto-fermentedanaerobicallylactic fermentation
In the memoir, he developed his ideas stating that: "I intend to establish that, just as there is an alcoholic ferment, the yeast of beer, which is found everywhere that sugar is decomposed into alcohol and carbonic acid, so also there is a particular ferment, a lactic yeast, always present when sugar becomes lactic acid."
It was then in 1857 when the French chemist Louis Pasteur first described the lactic acid as the product of a microbial fermentation.

Dole, Jura

DoleDôleDole, France
Louis Pasteur was born on December 27, 1822, in Dole, Jura, France, to a Catholic family of a poor tanner.
Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895), microbiologist and chemist

France

🇫🇷FrenchFRA
Louis Pasteur was born on December 27, 1822, in Dole, Jura, France, to a Catholic family of a poor tanner.
With the Industrial Revolution, the 19th century saw spectacular scientific developments in France with scientists such as Augustin Fresnel, founder of modern optics, Sadi Carnot who laid the foundations of thermodynamics, and Louis Pasteur, a pioneer of microbiology.

Rabies

rabidhydrophobiamad dog
He reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax.
Almost all human cases of rabies were fatal until a vaccine was developed in 1885 by Louis Pasteur and Émile Roux.

Vaccine

vaccinesvaccinatedvaccination
This discovery revolutionized work in infectious diseases, and Pasteur gave these artificially weakened diseases the generic name of "vaccines", in honour of Jenner's discovery.
In 1881, to honor Jenner, Louis Pasteur proposed that the terms should be extended to cover the new protective inoculations then being developed.

Variolation

inoculatedvaccineinoculation against smallpox
Inoculation with smallpox (variolation) was known to result in a much less severe disease, and greatly reduced mortality, in comparison with the naturally acquired disease.
Further confusion was caused when, in 1891, Louis Pasteur honoured Jenner by widening the terms vaccine/vaccination to refer to the artificial induction of immunity against any infectious disease.

Antiseptic

antisepsisantisepticsgermicide
He proposed preventing the entry of micro-organisms into the human body, leading Joseph Lister to develop antiseptic methods in surgery.
The widespread introduction of antiseptic surgical methods was initiated by the publishing of the paper Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery in 1867 by Joseph Lister, which was inspired by Louis Pasteur's germ theory of putrefaction.

Optical rotation

optically activeoptical activityoptically inactive
A solution of this compound derived from living things rotated the plane of polarization of light passing through it. The problem was that tartaric acid derived by chemical synthesis had no such effect, even though its chemical reactions were identical and its elemental composition was the same.
In 1849, Louis Pasteur resolved a problem concerning the nature of tartaric acid.