Louis Sullivan

SullivanesqueLouis H. SullivanSullivanLouis Henri SullivanAdler and Sullivanjewel box" banksLouis Henry SullivanLouis Wade SullivanSullivan, Louis
Louis Henry Sullivan (September 3, 1856 – April 14, 1924) was an American architect, and has been called the "father of skyscrapers" and "father of modernism".wikipedia
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Frank Lloyd Wright

WrightFrank Lloyd Wright’sWright, Frank Lloyd
He is considered by many as the creator of the modern skyscraper, was an influential architect and critic of the Chicago School, was a mentor to Frank Lloyd Wright, and an inspiration to the Chicago group of architects who have come to be known as the Prairie School.
Raised in rural Wisconsin, Wright studied civil engineering at the University of Wisconsin and then apprenticed in Chicago with noted architects Joseph Lyman Silsbee and Louis Sullivan.

Henry Hobson Richardson

H. H. RichardsonH.H. RichardsonRichardson
Along with Wright and Henry Hobson Richardson, Sullivan is one of "the recognized trinity of American architecture".
Along with Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright, Richardson is one of "the recognized trinity of American architecture".

Frank Furness

Furness & HewittFurnessFurness & Evans
After one year of study, he moved to Philadelphia and took a job with architect Frank Furness.
He designed more than 600 buildings, most in the Philadelphia area, and is remembered for his diverse, muscular, often unordinarily scaled buildings, and for his influence on the Chicago architect Louis Sullivan.

Dankmar Adler

Adler
In 1879 Dankmar Adler hired Sullivan. Chicago was replete with extraordinary designers and builders in the late years of the nineteenth century, including Sullivan's partner, Dankmar Adler, as well as Daniel Burnham and John Wellborn Root.
He is best known for his fifteen-year partnership with Louis Sullivan, during which they designed influential skyscrapers that boldly addressed their steel skeleton through their exterior design: the Wainwright Building in St. Louis, Missouri (1891), the Chicago Stock Exchange Building (1894), and the Guaranty Building in Buffalo, New York (1896).

Prairie School

Prairie StylePrairiePrairie School architecture
He is considered by many as the creator of the modern skyscraper, was an influential architect and critic of the Chicago School, was a mentor to Frank Lloyd Wright, and an inspiration to the Chicago group of architects who have come to be known as the Prairie School.
The Prairie School is mostly associated with a generation of architects employed or influenced by Frank Lloyd Wright or Louis Sullivan, though usually not including Sullivan himself.

Chicago school (architecture)

Chicago SchoolCommercial styleChicago style
He is considered by many as the creator of the modern skyscraper, was an influential architect and critic of the Chicago School, was a mentor to Frank Lloyd Wright, and an inspiration to the Chicago group of architects who have come to be known as the Prairie School.
Architects whose names are associated with the Chicago School include Henry Hobson Richardson, Dankmar Adler, Daniel Burnham, William Holabird, William LeBaron Jenney, Martin Roche, John Root, Solon S. Beman, and Louis Sullivan.

Form follows function

utilitarianform following functionbeauty comes from the use
"Form follows function" would become one of the prevailing tenets of modern architects.
The architect Louis Sullivan coined the maxim, although it is often incorrectly attributed to the sculptor Horatio Greenough (1805–1852), whose thinking mostly predates the later functionalist approach to architecture.

St. Louis

St. Louis, MissouriSt. Louis, MOSaint Louis, Missouri
After 1889 the firm became known for their office buildings, particularly the 1891 Wainwright Building in St. Louis and the Schiller (later Garrick) Building and theater (1890) in Chicago.
St. Louis also was home to Desloge Consolidated Lead Company and several brass era automobile companies, including the Success Automobile Manufacturing Company; St. Louis is the site of the Wainwright Building, an early skyscraper built in 1892 by noted architect Louis Sullivan.

Wainwright Building

After 1889 the firm became known for their office buildings, particularly the 1891 Wainwright Building in St. Louis and the Schiller (later Garrick) Building and theater (1890) in Chicago.
It was designed by Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan and built between 1890 and 1891.

Monadnock Building

MonadnockMonadnock Block
Chicago's Monadnock Building (not designed by Sullivan) straddles this remarkable moment of transition: the northern half of the building, finished in 1891, is of load-bearing construction, while the southern half, finished only two years later, is of column-frame construction.
It was Aldis, one of two men Louis Sullivan credited with being "responsible for the modern office building", who convinced investors such as the Brooks brothers to build new skyscrapers in Chicago.

Sullivan Center

Carson, Pirie, Scott and Company BuildingCarson Pirie Scott Department StoreSchlesinger & Mayer
Other buildings often noted include the Chicago Stock Exchange Building (1894), the Guaranty Building (also known as the Prudential Building) of 1895–96 in Buffalo, New York, and the 1899–1904 Carson Pirie Scott Department Store by Sullivan on State Street in Chicago.
It was designed by Louis Sullivan for the retail firm Schlesinger & Mayer in 1899, and expanded by him and subsequently sold to H.G. Selfridge & Co. in 1904.

Art Nouveau

JugendstilArt-NouveauArt Nouveau style
While his buildings could be spare and crisp in their principal masses, he often punctuated their plain surfaces with eruptions of lush Art Nouveau or Celtic Revival decorations, usually cast in iron or terra cotta, and ranging from organic forms, such as vines and ivy, to more geometric designs and interlace, inspired by his Irish design heritage.
This book influenced a generation of architects, including Louis Sullivan, Victor Horta, Hector Guimard, and Antoni Gaudí.

École des Beaux-Arts

Ecole des Beaux ArtsÉcole des Beaux ArtsEcole des Beaux-Arts
After less than a year with Jenney, Sullivan moved to Paris and studied at the École des Beaux-Arts for a year.

Prudential (Guaranty) Building

Guaranty BuildingPrudential (Guaranty) Building (Buffalo, New York)Guaranty Building (Prudential Building)
Other buildings often noted include the Chicago Stock Exchange Building (1894), the Guaranty Building (also known as the Prudential Building) of 1895–96 in Buffalo, New York, and the 1899–1904 Carson Pirie Scott Department Store by Sullivan on State Street in Chicago.
It was completed in 1896 and was designed by Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler.

William Le Baron Jenney

William LeBaron JenneyJenney & MundieJenney and Mundie
He worked for William LeBaron Jenney, the architect often credited with erecting the first steel frame building.
In later years future leaders of the Chicago School like Louis Sullivan, Daniel Burnham, William Holabird, and Martin Roche, performed their architectural apprenticeships on Jenney's staff.

Beaux-Arts architecture

Beaux-ArtsBeaux ArtsBeaux-Arts style
Sullivan's massive Transportation Building and huge arched "Golden Door" stood out as the only building not of the current Beaux-Arts style, and with the only multicolored facade in the entire White City.
It also had a strong influence on architecture in the United States, because of the many prominent American architects who studied at the Beaux-Arts, including Henry Hobson Richardson, John Galen Howard, Daniel Burnham, and Louis Sullivan.

Buffalo, New York

BuffaloBuffalo, NYBuffalo, United States
Other buildings often noted include the Chicago Stock Exchange Building (1894), the Guaranty Building (also known as the Prudential Building) of 1895–96 in Buffalo, New York, and the 1899–1904 Carson Pirie Scott Department Store by Sullivan on State Street in Chicago.
At the end of the 19th century, the Guaranty Building—constructed by Louis Sullivan—was a prominent example of an early high-rise skyscraper.

Daniel Burnham

Daniel H. BurnhamDaniel Hudson BurnhamBurnham
Chicago was replete with extraordinary designers and builders in the late years of the nineteenth century, including Sullivan's partner, Dankmar Adler, as well as Daniel Burnham and John Wellborn Root.
After Root's sudden and unexpected death, a team of distinguished American architects and landscape architects, including Burnham, Frederick Law Olmsted, Charles McKim, Richard M. Hunt, George B. Post, Henry Van Brunt, and Louis Sullivan, radically changed Root's modern and colorful style to a Classical Revival style.

Graceland Cemetery

GracelandGraceland Cemetery, Chicago
A modest headstone marks his final resting spot in Graceland Cemetery in Chicago's Uptown and Lake View neighborhood.
Many of the cemetery's tombs are of great architectural or artistic interest, including the Getty Tomb, the Martin Ryerson Mausoleum (both designed by architect Louis Sullivan, who is also buried in the cemetery), and the Schoenhofen Pyramid Mausoleum.

International Style (architecture)

International StyleInternationalInternational-style
His forward-looking designs clearly anticipate some issues and solutions of Modernism; however, his embrace of ornament makes his contribution distinct from the Modern Movement that coalesced in the 1920s and became known as the "International Style".
Prior to use of the term 'International Style', some American architects—such as Louis Sullivan, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Irving Gill—exemplified qualities of simplification, honesty and clarity.

George Grant Elmslie

George ElmslieGeorge G. Elmslie
Except for some designs by his longtime draftsman George Grant Elmslie, and the occasional tribute to Sullivan such as Schmidt, Garden & Martin's First National Bank in Pueblo, Colorado (built across the street from Adler and Sullivan's Pueblo Opera House), his style is unique.
He worked with Louis Sullivan and later with William Gray Purcell as a partner in the firm Purcell & Elmslie.

Tribune Tower

Chicago Tribune TowerChicago Tribune BuildingChicago Tribune
He obtained a few commissions for small-town Midwestern banks (see below), wrote books, and in 1922 appeared as a critic of Raymond Hood's winning entry for the Tribune Tower competition.
Saarinen's tower was preferred by architects like Louis Sullivan, and was a strong influence on the next generation of skyscrapers including Raymond Hood's own subsequent work on the McGraw-Hill Building and Rockefeller Center.

Auditorium Building (Chicago)

Auditorium BuildingAuditorium TheatreAuditorium Theater
The culminating project of this phase of the firm's history was the 1889 Auditorium Building (1886–90, opened in stages) in Chicago, an extraordinary mixed-use building that included not only a 4,200-seat theater, but also a hotel and an office building with a 17-story tower and commercial storefronts at the ground level of the building, fronting Congress and Wabash Avenues.
The Auditorium Building in Chicago is one of the best-known designs of Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler.

Van Allen Building

He led the effort to save the Van Allen Building in Clinton, Iowa from demolition.
The four-story building was designed by Louis Sullivan and commissioned by John Delbert Van Allen (October 5, 1850 – December 30, 1928).

Celtic Revival

CelticCelticismIrish Literary Revival
While his buildings could be spare and crisp in their principal masses, he often punctuated their plain surfaces with eruptions of lush Art Nouveau or Celtic Revival decorations, usually cast in iron or terra cotta, and ranging from organic forms, such as vines and ivy, to more geometric designs and interlace, inspired by his Irish design heritage.
Louis Sullivan, the Chicago architect, incorporated dense Art Nouveau and Celtic-inspired interlace in the ornament of his buildings.