Louis XVI of France

Louis XVIKing Louis XVIKing Louis XVI of FranceKingLouis SeizeKing of FranceLouis-AugusteLouisLouis CapetDauphin
Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last king of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.wikipedia
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Flour War

Flour War of 1775prompt the masses to revoltguerre des farines
In periods of bad harvests, it would lead to food scarcity which would prompt the masses to revolt.
This large-scale revolt subsided following wheat price controls imposed by Turgot, Louis XVI's Controller-General of Finances (before the supply recovered), and the deploying of military troops.

Marie Antoinette

Marie-AntoinetteQueen Marie AntoinetteQueen Marie-Antoinette
Discontent among the members of France's middle and lower classes resulted in strengthened opposition to the French aristocracy and to the absolute monarchy, of which Louis and his wife, Queen Marie Antoinette, were viewed as representatives.
She became Dauphine of France in May 1770 at age 14 upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne.

Flight to Varennes

Varennesflee Parisattempted flight
His disastrous flight to Varennes in June 1791, four months before the constitutional monarchy was declared, seemed to justify the rumors that the king tied his hopes of political salvation to the prospects of foreign intervention.
The royal Flight to Varennes (Fuite à Varennes) during the night of 20–21 June 1791 was a significant episode in the French Revolution in which King Louis XVI of France, his queen Marie Antoinette, and their immediate family unsuccessfully attempted to escape from Paris in order to initiate a counter-revolution at the head of loyal troops under royalist officers concentrated at Montmédy near the frontier.

French Revolutionary Wars

French RevolutionaryFrench Revolutionary WarFrench Revolutionary troops
His disastrous flight to Varennes in June 1791, four months before the constitutional monarchy was declared, seemed to justify the rumors that the king tied his hopes of political salvation to the prospects of foreign intervention.
As early as 1791, the other monarchies of Europe looked with outrage at the revolution and its upheavals; and they considered whether they should intervene, either in support of King Louis XVI, to prevent the spread of revolution, or to take advantage of the chaos in France.

Storming of the Bastille

fall of the BastilleBastillestormed the Bastille
Increasing tensions and violence were marked by events such as the storming of the Bastille, during which riots in Paris forced Louis to definitively recognize the legislative authority of the National Assembly.
During the reign of Louis XVI, France faced a major economic crisis.

Estates General of 1789

Estates-GeneralEstates-General of 1789Estates General
This led to the convening of the Estates-General of 1789.
Summoned by King Louis XVI, it was brought to an end when the Third Estate formed into a National Assembly, inviting the other two to join, against the wishes of the King.

National Convention

ConventionFrench National ConventionFrench Convention
He was tried by the National Convention (self-instituted as a tribunal for the occasion), found guilty of high treason, and executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793, as a desacralized French citizen under the name of "Citizen Louis Capet," in reference to Hugh Capet, the founder of the Capetian dynasty – which the revolutionaries interpreted as Louis' surname.
The Convention came about when the Legislative Assembly, which had found it impossible to work with the king, decreed the provisional suspension of King Louis XVI and the convocation of a National Convention to draw up a new constitution with no monarchy.

Bourbon Restoration

RestorationKingdom of FranceFrance
Both of his sons died in childhood, before the Bourbon Restoration; his only child to reach adulthood, Marie Therese, was given over to the Austrians in exchange for French prisoners of war, eventually dying childless in 1851.
The brothers of the executed Louis XVI came to power and reigned in highly conservative fashion.

Palace of Versailles

VersaillesChâteau de VersaillesChateau de Versailles
Louis-Auguste de France, who was given the title Duc de Berry at birth, was born in the Palace of Versailles.
The Palace of Versailles (Château de Versailles ) was the principal royal residence of France from 1682, under Louis XIV, until the start of the French Revolution in 1789, under Louis XVI.

France in the American Revolutionary War

FranceFrenchAmerican Revolutionary War
From 1776, Louis XVI actively supported the North American colonists, who were seeking their independence from Great Britain, which was realised in the 1783 Treaty of Paris.
Secretly approached by Louis XVI and France's foreign minister, the comte de Vergennes, Pierre Beaumarchais was authorized to sell gunpowder and ammunition to the Americans for close to a million pounds under the veil of the French company Rodrigue Hortalez et Compagnie.

Marie Leszczyńska

Maria LeszczyńskaMarie LeszczynskaMarie Leczinska
One of seven children, he was the second surviving son of Louis, the Dauphin of France, and the grandson of Louis XV of France and of his consort, Maria Leszczyńska.
She was the grandmother of Louis XVI, Louis XVIII and Charles X of France.

Charles X of France

Charles XComte d'ArtoisKing Charles X
He enjoyed physical activities such as hunting with his grandfather and rough play with his younger brothers, Louis-Stanislas, comte de Provence, and Charles-Philippe, comte d'Artois.
An uncle of the uncrowned Louis XVII and younger brother to reigning kings Louis XVI and Louis XVIII, he supported the latter in exile.

Louis XV of France

Louis XVKing Louis XVKing Louis XV of France
One of seven children, he was the second surviving son of Louis, the Dauphin of France, and the grandson of Louis XV of France and of his consort, Maria Leszczyńska. In 1765, at the death of his father, Louis, son and heir apparent of Louis XV, Louis-Auguste became the new dauphin of France. The strict and conservative education he received from the Duc de La Vauguyon, "gouverneur des Enfants de France" (governor of the Children of France), from 1760 until his marriage in 1770, did not prepare him for the throne that he was to inherit in 1774 after the death of his grandfather, Louis XV.
He was succeeded in 1774 by his grandson Louis XVI, who was executed by guillotine during the French Revolution.

Capetian dynasty

CapetianCapetiansCapetian kings
He was tried by the National Convention (self-instituted as a tribunal for the occasion), found guilty of high treason, and executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793, as a desacralized French citizen under the name of "Citizen Louis Capet," in reference to Hugh Capet, the founder of the Capetian dynasty – which the revolutionaries interpreted as Louis' surname.
One notable use was during the French Revolution, when the dethroned King Louis XVI (a member of the House of Bourbon and a direct male-line descendant of Hugh Capet) and Queen Marie Antoinette (a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine) were referred to as "Louis and Antoinette Capet" (the queen being addressed as "the Widow Capet" after the execution of her husband).

Louis XVIII of France

Louis XVIIIKing Louis XVIIIComte de Provence
He enjoyed physical activities such as hunting with his grandfather and rough play with his younger brothers, Louis-Stanislas, comte de Provence, and Charles-Philippe, comte d'Artois.
Until his accession to the throne of France, he held the title of Count of Provence as brother of King Louis XVI.

Treason

high treasontraitortraitors
He was tried by the National Convention (self-instituted as a tribunal for the occasion), found guilty of high treason, and executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793, as a desacralized French citizen under the name of "Citizen Louis Capet," in reference to Hugh Capet, the founder of the Capetian dynasty – which the revolutionaries interpreted as Louis' surname.
Charles I in England and Louis XVI in France were found guilty of such treason and duly executed.

French First Republic

French RepublicFranceFirst French Republic
In a context of civil and international war, Louis XVI was suspended and arrested at the time of the Insurrection of 10 August 1792; one month later, the absolute monarchy was abolished; the First French Republic was proclaimed on 21 September 1792.
In July 1792, the Duke of Brunswick, commanding general of the Austro–Prussian Army, issued his Brunswick Manifesto, in which he threatened the destruction of Paris should any harm come to the King Louis XVI of France.

War of the First Coalition

First CoalitionCoalitionFirst
In a context of civil and international war, Louis XVI was suspended and arrested at the time of the Insurrection of 10 August 1792; one month later, the absolute monarchy was abolished; the First French Republic was proclaimed on 21 September 1792.
As early as 1791, other monarchies in Europe were watching the developments in France with alarm, and considered intervening, either in support of Louis XVI or to take advantage of the chaos in France.

Guillotine

guillotinedguillotiningbeheaded
He was tried by the National Convention (self-instituted as a tribunal for the occasion), found guilty of high treason, and executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793, as a desacralized French citizen under the name of "Citizen Louis Capet," in reference to Hugh Capet, the founder of the Capetian dynasty – which the revolutionaries interpreted as Louis' surname.
A death penalty opponent, he was displeased with the breaking wheel and other common and gruesome methods of execution and sought to convince Louis XVI of France to implement a less painful alternative.

American Revolutionary War

Revolutionary WarAmerican War of IndependenceAmerican Revolution
From 1776, Louis XVI actively supported the North American colonists, who were seeking their independence from Great Britain, which was realised in the 1783 Treaty of Paris.
The French public favored war, though Vergennes and King Louis XVI were hesitant, owing to the military and financial risk.

Ernestine Lambriquet

Ernestine de Lambriquet
1781-1793), a Senegalese slave boy given to the queen as a present by Chevalier de Boufflers in 1787, but whom she instead had freed, baptized, adopted and placed in a pension; Ernestine Lambriquet (1778-1813), daughter of two servants at the palace, who was raised as the playmate of his daughter and whom he adopted after the death of her mother in 1788; and finally "Zoe" Jeanne Louise Victoire (born in 1787), who was adopted in 1790 along with her two older sisters when her parents, an usher and his wife in service of the king, had died.
Ernestine de Lambriquet born Marie-Philippine Lambriquet (31 July 1778- 31 December 1813), was the adopted daughter of King Louis XVI of France and Queen Marie Antoinette.

Paul François de Quelen de la Vauguyon

De la VauguyonDuc de La VauguyonLa Vauguyon
The strict and conservative education he received from the Duc de La Vauguyon, "gouverneur des Enfants de France" (governor of the Children of France), from 1760 until his marriage in 1770, did not prepare him for the throne that he was to inherit in 1774 after the death of his grandfather, Louis XV.
He wrote a Portrait de feu monseigneur le Dauphin and was menin to the future Louis XVI, one of the Dauphin's sons.

Anne Robert Jacques Turgot

TurgotAnne-Robert-Jacques TurgotAnne Robert Jacques Turgot, Baron de Laune
Louis implemented deregulation of the grain market, advocated by his economic liberal minister Turgot, but it resulted in an increase in bread prices.
Three of these letters have disappeared, having been sent to Louis XVI by Turgot at a later date and never recovered, but those remaining demonstrate that free trade in grain is to the interest of landowner, farmer and consumer alike, and in forcible terms demand the removal of all restrictions.

Jacques Necker

NeckerM. Neckeryour father
So, in 1776, Turgot was dismissed and Malesherbes resigned, to be replaced by Jacques Necker.
Jacques Necker (30 September 1732 – 9 April 1804) was a banker of Genevan origin who became a finance minister for Louis XVI and a French statesman.

Edict of Versailles

Edict of Tolerance
Among the major events of Louis XVI's reign was his signing of the Edict of Versailles, also known as the Edict of Tolerance, on 7 November 1787, which was registered in the parlement on 29 January 1788.
The edict was signed by Louis XVI on 7 November 1787, and registered in the Parlement of Paris of the Ancien Régime on 29 January 1788.