Loupe

A jeweler's loupe
Diagram of a single lens loupe
BelOMO 10× achromatic triplet jewellers' loupe
A pair of dental loupes featuring in-lens magnification. There is a loupe light mounted on the bridge of the loupes and side shields (not shown) on the temples to protect a dentist's eyes from splatter.
Ergonomic loupes with 10× magnification oculars
Cardiac surgeon wearing surgical loupes
A 30×21 mm loupe

Simple, small magnification device used to see small details more closely.

- Loupe

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Magnifying glass

Convex lens that is used to produce a magnified image of an object.

Text seen through a magnifying glass
Jim Hutton as detective Ellery Queen, posing with a magnifying glass
A plastic Fresnel lens sold as a TV-screen magnifier
Diagram of a single lens magnifying glass
Magnifying glass on an arm lamp
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High power magnifiers are sometimes mounted in a cylindrical or conical holder with no handle, often designed to be worn on the head; this is called a loupe.

Gemology

Science dealing with natural and artificial gemstone materials.

Examining a pink sapphire under a gemmological microscope
Peridot (Mg, Fe)2SiO4 in the rough form and a cut and polished gem
Gemmological travel lab KA52KRS
Traditional handheld refractometer
Three inclusion phases in rock crystal quartz
The curvature observed in this synthetic color-change sapphire is due to a process known as the Verneuil Process or, flame fusion. During this process, a fine crushed material is heated at extremely high temperatures. The crushed material is then melted which drips through a furnace onto a boule. This boule where the corundum cools down and crystallizes, spins and thus causes the curved striations. Natural corundum does not form this way and lacks the curved striations.
A selection of ornamental stones made by tumbling rough rock with abrasive grit in a rotating drum. The biggest pebble here is 40 mm long.

Corrected 10× loupe

Photographic film

Strip or sheet of transparent film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.

Undeveloped 35 mm, ISO 125/22°, black and white negative film
Layers of 35 mm color film:
Plot of image density (D) vs. log exposure (H), yields a characteristic S-curve (H&D curve) for each type of film to determine its sensitivity. Changing the emulsion properties or the processing parameters will move the curve to the left or right. Changing the exposure will move along the curve, helping to determine what exposure is needed for a given film. Note the non-linear response at the far left ("toe") and right ("shoulder") of the curve.
A roll of 400 speed Kodak 35 mm film.
135 Film Cartridge with DX barcode (top) and DX CAS code on the black and white grid below the barcode. The CAS code shows the ISO, number of exposures, exposure latitude (+3/−1 for print film).
DX film edge barcode
9.5mm film
Mycro 17.5mm film
Kodak Agfa 16 mm film
120 film
35mm film

Color reversal film produces positive transparencies, also known as diapositives. Transparencies can be reviewed with the aid of a magnifying loupe and a lightbox. If mounted in small metal, plastic or cardboard frames for use in a slide projector or slide viewer they are commonly called slides. Reversal film is often marketed as "slide film". Large-format color reversal sheet film is used by some professional photographers, typically to originate very-high-resolution imagery for digital scanning into color separations for mass photomechanical reproduction. Photographic prints can be produced from reversal film transparencies, but positive-to-positive print materials for doing this directly (e.g. Ektachrome paper, Cibachrome/Ilfochrome) have all been discontinued, so it now requires the use of an internegative to convert the positive transparency image into a negative transparency, which is then printed as a positive print.

Reversal film

Type of photographic film that produces a positive image on a transparent base.

A single slide, showing a color transparency in a plastic frame
Slide projector, showing the lens and a typical double slide carrier
Picture of a boat taken on Fomapan R 100 black-and-white reversal film
Film scanner
Slide projector Leitz Prado
Slide frames, 1940 (metal or card) to 1985 (plastic)
Agfacolor slide dated 1939
Agfacolor slide dated 1942
Slide viewer
Slide viewer
Slide archive box
Slide frame 6×6 cm
Slide frames 6×{{convert|6|cm|in|sp=us}}
A type 120 reversal film from the mid-1950s: the Italian Ferraniacolor

In traditional newsrooms and magazine offices slides were viewed using a lightbox and a loupe, which allowed rapid side by side comparison of similar images.

Diamond clarity

Quality of diamonds that relates to the existence and visual appearance of internal characteristics of a diamond called inclusions, and surface defects, called blemishes.

Diamond certified FL (flawless) by the GIA
Two diamonds of grade VS1 and SI2 respectively.

A clarity grade is assigned based on the overall appearance of the stone under ten times magnification, which is the standard magnification for loupes used in the gem world.

Ground glass

Glass whose surface has been ground to produce a flat but rough finish, in which the glass is in small sharp fragments.

Ground glass stoppers

The photographer focuses and composes using this projected image, sometimes with the aid of a magnifying glass (or loupe).

Graphics tablet

Computer input device that enables a user to hand-draw images, animations and graphics, with a special pen-like stylus, similar to the way a person draws images with a pencil and paper.

A graphic tablet.
A large-format graphic tablet by manufacturer Summagraphics (OEM'd to Gerber): The puck's external copper coil can be clearly seen.

Professional pucks often have a reticle or loupe which allows the user to see the exact point on the tablet's surface targeted by the puck, for detailed tracing and computer aided design (CAD) work.

View camera

Large-format camera in which the lens forms an inverted image on a ground-glass screen directly at the film plane.

Basic view camera terminology
A Sanderson 'Hand' camera dating from circa 1899
Front standard shift
Front standard tilt
Front standard swing (top view)
Viewing through a Sinar F camera

Often, a photographer uses a magnifying lens, usually a high quality loupe, to critically focus the image.

Binoculars

Binoculars or field glasses are two refracting telescopes mounted side-by-side and aligned to point in the same direction, allowing the viewer to use both eyes (binocular vision) when viewing distant objects.

8×42 roof prism binoculars
A typical Porro prism binoculars design
Galilean binoculars
Cross-section of a relay lens aprismatic binocular design
Double Porro prism design
Porro prism binoculars
Schmidt–Pechan "roof" prism design
Abbe–Koenig "roof" prism design
Roof prism binoculars with the eyepieces in line with the objectives
Parameters listed on the prism cover plate describing 7 power magnification binoculars with a 50 mm objective diameter and a 372 foot field of view at 1000 yards
The small exit pupil of a 25×30 telescope and large exit pupils of 9×63 binoculars suitable for use in low light
Central-focusing binoculars with adjustable interpupillary distance
People using binoculars
Binoculars with red-colored multicoatings
Special reflective coatings on large naval ship 20×120 binoculars
Tower Optical coin-operated binoculars
Vector series laser rangefinder 7×42 binoculars can measure distance and angles and also features a 360° digital compass and class 1 eye safe filters
German U.D.F. 7×50 blc U-boat binoculars (1939–1945)
7×50 marine binoculars with dampened compass
US Naval ship 'Big eyes' 20×120 binoculars in fixed mounting
25 × 150 binoculars adapted for astronomical use
A simulated view of how the Andromeda Galaxy (Messier 31) would appear in a pair of binoculars
Beam path at the roof edge (cross-section); the P-coating layer is on both roof surfaces

The Galilean design is also used in low magnification binocular surgical and jewelers' loupes because they can be very short and produce an upright image without extra or unusual erecting optics, reducing expense and overall weight.

Diamond simulant

Object or material with gemological characteristics similar to those of a diamond.

Its low cost and close visual likeness to diamond have made cubic zirconia the most gemologically and economically important diamond simulant since 1976.

Diamond's hardness also is visually evident (under the microscope or loupe) by its highly lustrous facets (described as adamantine) which are perfectly flat, and by its crisp, sharp facet edges.