Loving v. Virginia

Mildred LovingRichard LovingLoving v VirginiaRichard and Mildred LovingMildred and Richard LovingLoving vs. VirginiaMr. and Mrs. Loving19671967 civil rights turning pointa constitutional right
Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967), was a landmark decision of the U.S.wikipedia
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Anti-miscegenation laws in the United States

anti-miscegenation lawsanti-miscegenationanti-miscegenation law
Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967), was a landmark decision of the U.S. Supreme Court that struck down all state laws banning interracial marriage as violations of the Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
Most states had repealed their bans on interracial marriages by 1967, when the U.S. Supreme Court led by Chief Justice Earl Warren ruled in Loving v. Virginia that such laws in the remaining 16 states were unconstitutional.

Loving (2016 film)

LovingLoving (2016)Loving'' (2016 film)
It has been the subject of several songs and three movies, including the 2016 film Loving.
Loving is a 2016 British-American biographical romantic drama film which tells the story of Richard and Mildred Loving, the plaintiffs in the 1967 U.S. Supreme Court (the Warren Court) decision Loving v. Virginia, which invalidated state laws prohibiting interracial marriage.

Interracial marriage in the United States

interracial marriageinterracialinterracial bans on marriage
The decision was followed by an increase in interracial marriages in the U.S. and is remembered annually on Loving Day.
]]Interracial marriage in the United States has been legal in all U.S. states since the 1967 U.S. Supreme Court (Warren Court) decision Loving v. Virginia that deemed "anti-miscegenation" laws unconstitutional.

Same-sex marriage in the United States

same-sex marriageUnited Statesgay marriage
Beginning in 2013, it was cited as precedent in U.S. federal court decisions holding restrictions on same-sex marriage in the United States unconstitutional, including in the 2015 Supreme Court decision Obergefell v. Hodges.
The fifty states each have separate marriage laws, which must adhere to rulings by the Supreme Court of the United States that recognize marriage as a fundamental right that is guaranteed by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, as first established in the 1967 landmark civil rights case of Loving v. Virginia.

Loving Day

The decision was followed by an increase in interracial marriages in the U.S. and is remembered annually on Loving Day.
Loving Day is an annual celebration held on June 12, the anniversary of the 1967 United States Supreme Court decision Loving v. Virginia which struck down all anti-miscegenation laws remaining in sixteen U.S. states.

Racial Integrity Act of 1924

Racial Integrity Act1924 Racial Integrity Actanti-miscegenation laws
Their marriage violated Virginia's Racial Integrity Act of 1924, which criminalized marriage between people classified as "white" and people classified as "colored".
In 1967, this Act and the Virginia Sterilization Act were officially overturned by the United States Supreme Court in their ruling Loving v. Virginia.

Pace v. Alabama

The Court struck down Virginia's anti-miscegenation law, thereby overruling the 1883 case Pace v. Alabama and ending all race-based legal restrictions on marriage in the United States.
This ruling was rejected by the Supreme Court in 1964 in McLaughlin v. Florida and in 1967 in Loving v. Virginia.

Black Codes (United States)

Black CodesBlack CodeBlack Laws
In the Reconstruction Era in 1865, the Black Codes across the seven states of the lower South made intermarriage illegal.
New restrictions were placed on intermarriage, concubinage, and miscegenation with slaves in Arizona in 1864, California in 1880, Colorado in 1864, Florida, Indiana in 1905, Kentucky in 1866, Montana in 1909, Nebraska in 1865, Nevada in 1912, North Dakota in 1943, Ohio 1877, Oregon in 1867, Rhode Island in 1872, South Dakota in 1913, Tennessee in 1870, Texas in 1858, Utah in 1888, Virginia, Washington in 1866 but promptly repealed it in 1867, West Virginia in 1863 but overturned by Loving v Virginia in 1967, and Wyoming in 1908.

Marriage in the United States

marriedmarriage 1 Some states recognize marriages
The Court struck down Virginia's anti-miscegenation law, thereby overruling the 1883 case Pace v. Alabama and ending all race-based legal restrictions on marriage in the United States.
In 1967, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down remaining interracial marriage laws nationwide, in the case Loving v. Virginia.

Miscegenation

interracialadmixtureamalgamation
The Lovings were charged under Section 20-58 of the Virginia Code, which prohibited interracial couples from being married out of state and then returning to Virginia, and Section 20-59, which classified miscegenation as a felony, punishable by a prison sentence of between one and five years.
In 1967, the United States Supreme Court unanimously ruled in Loving v. Virginia that anti-miscegenation laws are unconstitutional.

Philip Hirschkop

Philip J. HirschkopPhil Hirschkop
The ACLU assigned volunteer cooperating attorneys Bernard S. Cohen and Philip J. Hirschkop, who filed a motion on behalf of the Lovings in the Virginia Caroline County Circuit Court, that requested the court to vacate the criminal judgments and set aside the Lovings' sentences on the grounds that the Virginia miscegenation statutes ran counter to the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause.
Philip Jay Hirschkop (born May 14, 1936) is a lawyer who "started his career at the top" by taking on Mildred and Richard Loving as clients in a landmark case (Loving v. Virginia) that ended the enforcement of state bans on interracial marriage.

Bernard S. Cohen

Bernie Cohen
The ACLU assigned volunteer cooperating attorneys Bernard S. Cohen and Philip J. Hirschkop, who filed a motion on behalf of the Lovings in the Virginia Caroline County Circuit Court, that requested the court to vacate the criminal judgments and set aside the Lovings' sentences on the grounds that the Virginia miscegenation statutes ran counter to the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause.
On April 10, 1967, he presented oral argument for the petitioners in the Loving v. Virginia case before the U. S. Supreme Court.

Obergefell v. Hodges

ObergefellObergefell vs. HodgesJune Supreme Court ruling
Beginning in 2013, it was cited as precedent in U.S. federal court decisions holding restrictions on same-sex marriage in the United States unconstitutional, including in the 2015 Supreme Court decision Obergefell v. Hodges.
As the Supreme Court has found in cases such as Loving v. Virginia, Zablocki v. Redhail, and Turner v. Safley, this extension includes a fundamental right to marry.

Caroline County, Virginia

Caroline CountyCarolineCaroline County, VA
Their families both lived in Caroline County, Virginia.
In 1958, Richard and Mildred Loving challenged miscegenation laws in the state when they married.

Earl Warren

WarrenChief Justice Earl WarrenChief Justice Warren
The Court's opinion was written by Chief Justice Earl Warren, and all the justices joined it.
The "Warren Court" presided over a major shift in American constitutional jurisprudence, which has been recognized by many as a "Constitutional Revolution" of the liberal, with Warren writing the majority opinions in landmark cases such as Brown v. Board of Education (1954), Reynolds v. Sims (1964), Miranda v. Arizona (1966) and Loving v. Virginia (1967).

Robert McIlwaine

The Lovings, still supported by the ACLU, appealed the decision to the United States Supreme Court, where Virginia was represented by Robert McIlwaine of the state's attorney general's office.
He is known for his defense of Virginia's policies of racial segregation in the civil rights cases in which he represented the state as a lawyer for the attorney general's office, including Loving v. Virginia.

Equal Protection Clause

equal protectionequal protection of the lawsEqual Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment
Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967), was a landmark decision of the U.S. Supreme Court that struck down all state laws banning interracial marriage as violations of the Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The ACLU assigned volunteer cooperating attorneys Bernard S. Cohen and Philip J. Hirschkop, who filed a motion on behalf of the Lovings in the Virginia Caroline County Circuit Court, that requested the court to vacate the criminal judgments and set aside the Lovings' sentences on the grounds that the Virginia miscegenation statutes ran counter to the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause.
Almost a hundred years would pass before the U.S. Supreme Court followed that Alabama case (Burns v. State) in the case of Loving v. Virginia.

Supreme Court of the United States

United States Supreme CourtU.S. Supreme CourtSupreme Court
Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967), was a landmark decision of the U.S. Supreme Court that struck down all state laws banning interracial marriage as violations of the Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

Jim Crow laws

Jim CrowJim Crow eraJim Crow law
The county adhered to strict Jim Crow segregation laws but Central Point had been a visible mixed-race community since the 19th century.
It next appeared in the landmark decision of Loving v. Virginia,.

Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

Fourteenth Amendment14th AmendmentFourteenth
Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967), was a landmark decision of the U.S. Supreme Court that struck down all state laws banning interracial marriage as violations of the Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The ACLU assigned volunteer cooperating attorneys Bernard S. Cohen and Philip J. Hirschkop, who filed a motion on behalf of the Lovings in the Virginia Caroline County Circuit Court, that requested the court to vacate the criminal judgments and set aside the Lovings' sentences on the grounds that the Virginia miscegenation statutes ran counter to the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause.

Turner v. Safley

This is in line with the Supreme Court's decision in Loving v. Virginia that the right to marry is a fundamental right protected by the liberty element of the due process clause.

White people

whitewhitesCaucasian
Their marriage violated Virginia's Racial Integrity Act of 1924, which criminalized marriage between people classified as "white" and people classified as "colored".
The set of laws was finally declared unconstitutional in 1967, when the Supreme Court ruled on anti-miscegenation laws while hearing Loving v. Virginia, which also found that Virginia's Racial Integrity Act of 1924 was unconstitutional.

Rappahannock people

RappahannockRappahannock tribeRappahannocks
She has been noted as self-identifying as Indian-Rappahannock, but was also reported as being of Cherokee, Portuguese, and African American ancestry.

Supreme Court of California

California Supreme CourtChief Justice of CaliforniaSupreme Court
In Perez, the Supreme Court of California recognized that bans on interracial marriage violated the Fourteenth Amendment of the Federal Constitution.

The Loving Kind (Nanci Griffith album)

The Loving KindThe Loving Kind'' (Nanci Griffith album)
In music, Nanci Griffith's 2009 album The Loving Kind is named for the Lovings and includes a song about them.
The album tackles political topics such as Loving vs. Virginia ("The Loving Kind") and capital punishment ("Not Innocent Enough"), as well as songs about Griffith's heroes, such as Townes Van Zandt ("Up Against the Rain").