Low-noise block downconverter

LNBlow-noise block converterBlock conversionLNBFLNBsblock converterconvertersLNB with feedhornLNBFsLNC
A low-noise block downconverter (LNB) is the receiving device mounted on satellite dishes used for satellite TV reception, which collects the radio waves from the dish and converts them to a signal which is sent through a cable to the receiver inside the building.wikipedia
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Satellite dish

satellite dishesdishsatellite antenna
A low-noise block downconverter (LNB) is the receiving device mounted on satellite dishes used for satellite TV reception, which collects the radio waves from the dish and converts them to a signal which is sent through a cable to the receiver inside the building.
This feedhorn is essentially the front-end of a waveguide that gathers the signals at or near the focal point and 'conducts' them to a low-noise block downconverter or LNB.

RF front end

front endfrontendradio front ends
It serves as the RF front end of the satellite receiver, receiving the microwave signal from the satellite collected by the dish, amplifying it, and downconverting the block of frequencies to a lower block of intermediate frequencies (IF).
In microwave and satellite receivers it is often called the low-noise block (LNB) or low-noise downconverter (LND) and is often located at the antenna, so that the signal from the antenna can be transferred to the rest of the receiver at the more easily handled intermediate frequency.

Set-top box

set top boxset-top boxesSTB
The LNB gets its power from the receiver or set-top box, using the same coaxial cable that carries signals from the LNB to the receiver.
Block conversion of the entire affected frequency band onto UHF, while less common, was used by some models to provide full VCR compatibility and the ability to drive multiple TV sets, albeit with a somewhat nonstandard channel numbering scheme.

Parabolic antenna

dish antennaparabolicparabolic dish antenna
The LNB is usually a small box suspended on one or more short booms, or feed arms, in front of the dish reflector, at its focus (although some dish designs have the LNB on or behind the reflector).
This is called a low-noise block downconverter.

Intermediate frequency

IFintermediate frequenciesDual-conversion
It serves as the RF front end of the satellite receiver, receiving the microwave signal from the satellite collected by the dish, amplifying it, and downconverting the block of frequencies to a lower block of intermediate frequencies (IF). The LNB is a combination of low-noise amplifier, frequency mixer, local oscillator and intermediate frequency (IF) amplifier.
In the box at the focus of the dish, called a low-noise block downconverter (LNB), each block of frequencies is converted to the IF range of 950 - 2150 MHz by two fixed frequency local oscillators at 9.75 and 10.6 GHz.

Block upconverter

block up converterBlock upconverter (BUC)BUC
A corresponding component, called a block upconverter (BUC), is used at the satellite earth station (uplink) dish to convert the band of television channels to the microwave uplink frequency.
BUCs are generally used in conjunction with low-noise block converters (LNB).

Satellite television

satellitedirect broadcast satellitesatellite TV
A low-noise block downconverter (LNB) is the receiving device mounted on satellite dishes used for satellite TV reception, which collects the radio waves from the dish and converts them to a signal which is sent through a cable to the receiver inside the building.
The signals are received via an outdoor parabolic antenna commonly referred to as a satellite dish and a low-noise block downconverter.

SES S.A.

SESSociété Européenne des SatellitesSES Global
With the launch of the first DTH broadcast satellite in Europe (Astra 1A) by SES in 1988, antenna design was simplified for the anticipated mass-market. In Europe, as SES launched more Astra satellites to the 19.2°E orbital position in the 1990s, the range of downlink frequencies used in the FSS band (10.70–11.70 GHz) grew beyond that catered for by the standard LNBs and receivers of the time.
SES has also helped develop innovative reception technology such as the first home dish LNBFs, Universal LNBs, optical fibre signal distribution and the SAT>IP system for receiving and distributing satellite signals over home computer networks.

Feed horn

feedhornfeed antennafeedhorns
The microwave signal from the dish is picked up by a feedhorn on the LNB and is fed to a section of waveguide.
This is called the low-noise block downconverter (LNB), and the unit consisting of the horn plus the converter is called the LNB with feedhorn (LNBF).

Phantom power

Phantom poweringphantom-poweredPhantom voltage
This phantom power travels to the LNB; opposite to the signals from the LNB.

Multiswitch

A quattro LNB has a single feedhorn and four outputs, which each supply just one of the K u sub-bands (low band/horizontal polarization, high band/vertical polarization, low/vertical and high/horizontal) to a multiswitch or an array of multiswitches, which then delivers to each connected tuner whichever sub-band is required by that tuner.
A multiswitch is a device used with a dual or quattro LNB to distribute satellite TV signals to multiple (usually more than four) receivers from a single dish and LNB.

Duo LNB

A similar advantage is provided by the duo LNB for simultaneous reception of signals from both the Astra 23.5°E and Astra 19.2°E positions.
A Duo LNB is a double low-noise block downconverter (LNB) developed by SES for the simultaneous reception of satellite television signals from both the Astra 23.5°E and Astra 19.2°E satellite positions.

Microwave

microwavesmicrowave radiationmicrowave tube
Satellites use comparatively high radio frequencies (microwaves) to transmit their TV signals.

Single cable distribution

UnicableSatellite channel routerUnicable (technology)
Multiple tuners may also be fed from a satellite channel router (SCR) or unicable LNB in a single cable distribution system.
Without single cable distribution, providing full spectrum access for multiple receivers, or receivers with multiple tuners, in a single family home has required a separate coaxial cable feeding each tuner from the antenna equipment (either multiple LNBs, a multi-output LNB or a multiswitch distribution system) because of the large bandwidth requirement of the signals.

Dish Network

DishDish Network CorporationDISH Latino
In the United States, the LNB connected to a Dish Network receiver remains powered so the system can receive software and firmware updates and guide information over the air at night.
It uses one LNB to obtain signals from the 119°W orbital location, and was commonly used as a second dish to receive additional high-definition or ethnic programming from either the 148°W or 61.5°W orbital locations.

Freesat

Freesat Awardsfree satelliteFreesat Freetime
In the UK, the "minidish" sold for use with Sky Digital and Freesat uses an LNBF with an integrated clip-in mount.
Provided that the LNB has sufficient outputs, a single dish may be used to receive multiple services (i.e. Sky and Freesat).

Orthomode transducer

Ortho Mode Transducerortho-mode transducer (OMT)orthogonal mode transducer
It protects the receiver front-end element (the low-noise block converter, LNB) from burn-out by the power of the output signal generated by the block up converter (BUC).

Sky UK

SkyBSkyBSky Digital
In the UK, the "minidish" sold for use with Sky Digital and Freesat uses an LNBF with an integrated clip-in mount.
Provided is a universal Ku band LNB (9.75/10.600 GHz) which is fitted at the end of the dish and pointed at the correct satellite constellation; most digital receivers will receive the free to air channels.

Fixed-satellite service

FSSFixed Service Satellitefixed satellite service
In Europe, as SES launched more Astra satellites to the 19.2°E orbital position in the 1990s, the range of downlink frequencies used in the FSS band (10.70–11.70 GHz) grew beyond that catered for by the standard LNBs and receivers of the time.
It has an oval low-noise block downconverter (LNB) called a DP DBS/FSS Dual Band.

Frequency mixer

mixerfrequency mixingmixers
The LNB is a combination of low-noise amplifier, frequency mixer, local oscillator and intermediate frequency (IF) amplifier.

Local oscillator

LOlocal-oscillator (LO)oscillator
The LNB is a combination of low-noise amplifier, frequency mixer, local oscillator and intermediate frequency (IF) amplifier.

Microwave transmission

microwave radio relaymicrowave relaymicrowave link
It serves as the RF front end of the satellite receiver, receiving the microwave signal from the satellite collected by the dish, amplifying it, and downconverting the block of frequencies to a lower block of intermediate frequencies (IF).

Heterodyne

heterodyningHeterodyne detectionfrequency shifting
It serves as the RF front end of the satellite receiver, receiving the microwave signal from the satellite collected by the dish, amplifying it, and downconverting the block of frequencies to a lower block of intermediate frequencies (IF).

Coaxial cable

coaxialcoax cablecable
This downconversion allows the signal to be carried to the indoor satellite TV receiver using relatively cheap coaxial cable; if the signal remained at its original microwave frequency it would require an expensive and impractical waveguide line.