Loyalist (American Revolution)

LoyalistLoyalistsToriesToryAmerican LoyalistAmerican LoyalistsBritish LoyalistBritish LoyalistsloyalLoyalism
Loyalists were American colonists who stayed loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolutionary War, often called Tories, Royalists, or King's Men at the time.wikipedia
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American Revolutionary War

Revolutionary WarAmerican War of IndependenceAmerican Revolution
Loyalists were American colonists who stayed loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolutionary War, often called Tories, Royalists, or King's Men at the time.
In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward.

Upper Canada

UpperProvince of Upper CanadaUpper Canadian
Northern Loyalists largely migrated to Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia.
It was the primary destination of Loyalist refugees and settlers from the United States after the American Revolution, who often were granted land to settle in Upper Canada.

William Franklin

WilliamAssociated LoyalistsFranklin, William
William Franklin, the royal governor of New Jersey and son of Patriot leader Benjamin Franklin, became the leader of the Loyalists after his release from a Patriot prison in 1778.
He was the acknowledged illegitimate son of Benjamin Franklin, the last colonial Governor of New Jersey (1763–1776), and a steadfast Loyalist throughout the American Revolutionary War.

Daniel Dulany the Younger

Daniel DulanyDaniel Dulaney the YoungerDaniel Dulaney
Maryland lawyer Daniel Dulaney the Younger opposed taxation without representation but would not break his oath to the King or take up arms against him.
Daniel Dulany the Younger (June 28, 1722 – March 17, 1797) was a Maryland Loyalist politician, Mayor of Annapolis, and an influential American lawyer in the period immediately before the American Revolution.

Tory

ToriesToryismConservative
Loyalists were American colonists who stayed loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolutionary War, often called Tories, Royalists, or King's Men at the time.
It also has exponents in other parts of the former British Empire, such as the Loyalists of British America, who opposed American secession during the American War of Independence.

Siege of Savage's Old Fields

and surrounded the Patriot campBattle of Ninety-SixBattle of Ninety-Six Court-House
A brief siege at Ninety Six, South Carolina in the fall of 1775 was followed by a rapid rise in Patriot recruiting, and a Snow Campaign involving thousands of partisan militia resulted in the arrest or flight of most of the back country Loyalist leadership.
The Siege of Savage's Old Fields (also known as the First Siege of Ninety Six, November 19–21, 1775) was an encounter between Patriot and Loyalist forces in the back country town of Ninety Six, South Carolina, early in the American Revolutionary War.

Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge

decisively defeateddefeated at Moore's Creek Bridge
North Carolina back country Scots and former Regulators joined forces in early 1776, but they were broken as a force at the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge.
The victory of North Carolina Revolutionary forces over Southern Loyalists helped build political support for the revolution and increased recruitment of additional soldiers into their forces.

Snow Campaign

driven out of the colonymajor Patriot expedition
A brief siege at Ninety Six, South Carolina in the fall of 1775 was followed by a rapid rise in Patriot recruiting, and a Snow Campaign involving thousands of partisan militia resulted in the arrest or flight of most of the back country Loyalist leadership.
An army of up to 3,000 Patriot militia under Colonel Richard Richardson marched against Loyalist recruiting centers in South Carolina, flushing them out and frustrating attempts by the Loyalists to organize.

Nova Scotia

NSNova Scotia, CanadaNova Scotian
Northern Loyalists largely migrated to Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia.
After the Thirteen Colonies and their French allies forced the British forces to surrender (1781), approximately 33,000 Loyalists (the King's Loyal Americans, allowed to place "United Empire Loyalist" after their names) settled in Nova Scotia (14,000 of them in what became New Brunswick) on lands granted by the Crown as some compensation for their losses.

New Brunswick

NBProvince of New BrunswickNew Brunswick, Canada
Northern Loyalists largely migrated to Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia.
After the American Revolution, about 10,000 loyalist refugees settled along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy, commemorated in the province's motto, Spem reduxit ("hope restored").

Benjamin Franklin

Ben FranklinFranklinFranklin, Benjamin
William Franklin, the royal governor of New Jersey and son of Patriot leader Benjamin Franklin, became the leader of the Loyalists after his release from a Patriot prison in 1778.
A Loyalist, William and his father eventually broke relations over their differences about the American Revolutionary War.

New York City

New YorkNew York, New YorkNew York City, New York
They regrouped at Halifax and attacked New York in August, defeating George Washington's army at Long Island and capturing New York City and its vicinity, and they occupied the mouth of the Hudson River until 1783.
The city was a haven for Loyalist refugees and escaped slaves who joined the British lines for freedom newly promised by the Crown for all fighters.

German Americans

GermanGerman-AmericanGerman American
The Germans in Pennsylvania tried to stay out of the Revolution, just as many Quakers did, and when that failed, clung to the familiar connection rather than embrace the new.
Despite this, many of the German settlers were loyalists during the Revolution, possibly because they feared their royal land grants would be taken away by a new republican government, or because of loyalty to a British German monarchy who had provided the opportunity to live in a liberal society.

Long Island

Long Island, New YorkLong Island, NYEastern Long Island
They regrouped at Halifax and attacked New York in August, defeating George Washington's army at Long Island and capturing New York City and its vicinity, and they occupied the mouth of the Hudson River until 1783.
After the British victory on Long Island, many Patriots fled, leaving mostly Loyalists behind.

Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester

Guy CarletonSir Guy CarletonLord Dorchester
The British honored the pledge of freedom in New York City through the efforts of General Guy Carleton who recorded the names of African Americans who had supported the British in a document called the Book of Negroes which granted freedom to slaves who had escaped and assisted the British.
In this capacity he was notable for carrying out the Crown's promise of freedom to slaves who joined the British, and he oversaw the evacuation of British forces, Loyalists and more than 3,000 freedmen from New York City in 1783 to transport them to a British colony.

Shelburne riots

the first race riots
However, the inferior grants of land they were given and the prejudices of white Loyalists in nearby Shelburne who regularly harassed the settlement in events such as the Shelburne Riots in 1784, made life very difficult for the community.
The Shelburne riots were a series of mob attacks in July 1784 by landless British Loyalist veterans of the American Revolution against Black Loyalists and government officials in the town of Shelburne, Nova Scotia, Canada, and the nearby village of Birchtown.

Norfolk, Virginia

NorfolkNorfolk, VANorfolk City
The remains of their regiment were then involved in the evacuation of Norfolk, after which they served in the Chesapeake area.
In part because of its merchants' numerous trading ties with other parts of the British Empire, Norfolk served as a strong base of Loyalist support during the early part of the American Revolution.

British Empire

BritishEmpireBritain
When their cause was defeated, about 15 percent of the Loyalists (65,000–70,000 people) fled to other parts of the British Empire, to Britain itself, or to British North America (now Canada).
The war to the south influenced British policy in Canada, where between 40,000 and 100,000 defeated Loyalists had migrated from the new United States following independence.

George Washington

WashingtonGeneral WashingtonGeneral George Washington
They regrouped at Halifax and attacked New York in August, defeating George Washington's army at Long Island and capturing New York City and its vicinity, and they occupied the mouth of the Hudson River until 1783.
The colonists were divided over breaking away from British rule and split into two factions: Patriots who rejected British rule, and Loyalists who desired to remain subject to the British King.

Charleston, South Carolina

CharlestonCharleston, SCCharles Town
British forces seized control of other cities, including Philadelphia (1777), Savannah, Georgia (1778–83), and Charleston, South Carolina (1780–82).
As part of the Southern theater of the American Revolution, the British attacked the town in force three times, generally assuming that the settlement had a large base of Loyalists who would rally to their cause once given some military support.

Grace Growden Galloway

Grace Growden Galloway recorded the experience in her diary.
Grace Growden Galloway (1727–1782) was the wife of loyalist Joseph Galloway.

Patriot (American Revolution)

PatriotPatriotsWhig
They were opposed by the "Patriots", who supported the revolution, and called them "persons inimical to the liberties of America".
They were opposed by the Loyalists who supported continued British rule.

Siege of Boston

besieged Bostonevacuation of Bostonbesieged in Boston
In the opening months of the Revolutionary War, the Patriots laid siege to Boston, where most of the British forces were stationed.
Many Loyalists who lived outside the city of Boston left their homes and fled into the city.

Battle of Great Bridge

Great Bridgea decisive defeat of British forces at Great Bridge in Decemberdecisively repulsed
About 800 did so; some helped rout the Virginia militia at the Battle of Kemp's Landing and fought in the Battle of Great Bridge on the Elizabeth River, wearing the motto "Liberty to Slaves", but this time they were defeated.
Shortly thereafter, Norfolk, at the time a Loyalist center, was abandoned by Dunmore and the Tories, who fled to navy ships in the harbor.

Ninety Six, South Carolina

Ninety SixNinety-SixNinety-Six, South Carolina
A brief siege at Ninety Six, South Carolina in the fall of 1775 was followed by a rapid rise in Patriot recruiting, and a Snow Campaign involving thousands of partisan militia resulted in the arrest or flight of most of the back country Loyalist leadership.
On August 1, 1776, American militia forces led by Major Andrew Williamson were ambushed by Cherokee and Loyalists near here in the Battle of Twelve Mile Creek.