Bust of Crassus, in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen
1st century AD bust of Pompey, after an original from 55–50 BC
From left to right: Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey
Bust of Crassus, in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen
A view of Monte Conero in Marche, Italy (formerly Picenum), birthplace of Pompey
A Roman marble head of the triumvir Marcus Licinius Crassus, mid-1st century BC, Grand Palais, Paris
Roman statue putatively depicting Pompey, at the Villa Arconati a Castellazzo di Bollate (Milan, Italy), brought from Rome in 1627 by Galeazzo Arconati
A Roman bust of Pompey the Great made during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD), a copy of an original bust from 70 to 60 BC, Venice National Archaeological Museum, Italy
Marble bust of Pompey at the Louvre, Paris
From left to right: Julius Caesar, Marcus Licinius Crassus, and Pompey the Great
Modern bust of Pompey in the Residenz, Munich
Denarius minted by Publius Licinius Crassus, son of the triumvir Marcus, as monetalis in 55 BC; on the obverse is a laureate bust of Venus, perhaps in honor of his commanding officer Julius Caesar; on the reverse is an unidentified female figure, perhaps representing Gaul
A Roman portrait of Crassus, Pompey's political rival turned begrudging ally, in the Musée du Louvre, Paris
"The torture of Crassus," 1530s, Louvre
A denarius of Pompey minted in 49–48 BC
A tetradrachm of Tigranes II the Great of Armenia, minted at Antioch, 83–69 BC
Pompey in the Temple of Jerusalem, a miniature by Jean Fouquet, 15th century
The bust of Mithridates of Pontus in the Louvre, Paris
Judea (shown in blue) under Hyrcanus II in 63 BC, having been reduced to a small vassal as Pompey annexed the north for Rome (shown in red)
A modern bust of Pompey, restored in the 17th century with a black marble base, Vaux-le-Vicomte, France
18th-century depiction of the third triumph
From left to right: Julius Caesar, Marcus Licinius Crassus, and Pompey the Great
The Tusculum portrait, a bust of Julius Caesar in the Archaeological Museum of Turin, Italy
A Roman bust of Pompey the Great made during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD), a copy of an original bust from 70 to 60 BC, Venice National Archaeological Museum, Italy
The Flight of Pompey after Pharsalus, by Jean Fouquet
Roman bust of Cleopatra VII of Ptolemaic Egypt, mid-1st century BC, Altes Museum, Antikensammlung Berlin, showing Cleopatra with a "melon" hairstyle and Hellenistic royal diadem worn over the head
Theodotus shows Caesar the head of Pompey; etching, 1820
The head of Pompey on a denarius minted in 40 BC by his son Sextus Pompeius Magnus Pius

Caesar met with his political partners in the First Triumvirate, Pompey and Crassus.

- Luca Conference

Crassus rose to political prominence following his victory over the slave revolt led by Spartacus, sharing the consulship with his rival Pompey the Great.

- Marcus Licinius Crassus

The alliance was restabilized at the Lucca Conference in 56 BC, after which Crassus and Pompey again served jointly as consuls.

- Marcus Licinius Crassus

In 60 BC, Pompey joined Crassus and Caesar in the military-political alliance known as the First Triumvirate.

- Pompey

Cassius Dio, who wrote the most detailed account of the period, did not mention the Lucca conference.

- Pompey
Bust of Crassus, in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen

6 related topics with Alpha

Overall

From left to right: Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey

First Triumvirate

5 links

From left to right: Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey
A Roman bust of Marcus Tullius Cicero, depicted here at about age sixty, in the National Archaeological Museum of Spain
A Roman bust of Pompey the Great made during the reign of Augustus (27 BC - 14 AD), a copy of an original bust from 70 to 60 BC, Venice National Archaeological Museum, Italy
A Roman bust of Lucius Cornelius Sulla in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
The Tusculum portrait, a bust of Julius Caesar in the Archaeological Museum of Turin, Italy
A Roman bust of Crassus in the Louvre, Paris, France
Family tree showing the relationship between the three members of the First Triumvirate, as well as their relationships with other prominent members of the Republic.

The First Triumvirate (80-70BC) was an informal alliance among three prominent politicians in the late Roman Republic: Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Marcus Licinius Crassus.

In 56 BC, the Triumvirate was renewed at the Lucca Conference, in which the triumvirs agreed to share the Roman provinces between them; Caesar could keep Gaul for another five years, while Pompey received Hispania and Crassus Syria.

The Tusculum portrait, possibly the only surviving sculpture of Caesar made during his lifetime. Archaeological Museum, Turin, Italy.

Julius Caesar

4 links

Roman general and statesman.

Roman general and statesman.

The Tusculum portrait, possibly the only surviving sculpture of Caesar made during his lifetime. Archaeological Museum, Turin, Italy.
Gaius Marius, Caesar's uncle
Dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla stripped Caesar of the priesthood.
A denarius depicting Julius Caesar, dated to February–March 44 BC—the goddess Venus is shown on the reverse, holding Victoria and a scepter. Caption: CAESAR IMP. M. / L. AEMILIVS BVCA
The extent of the Roman Republic in 40 BC after Caesar's conquests
Vercingetorix throws down his arms at the feet of Julius Caesar, painting by Lionel Royer. Musée Crozatier, Le Puy-en-Velay, France.
A Roman bust of Pompey the Great made during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD), a copy of an original bust from 70 to 60 BC, Venice National Archaeological Museum, Italy.
Cleopatra and Caesar, 1866 painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme
This mid-1st-century-BC Roman wall painting in Pompeii is probably a depiction of Cleopatra VII as Venus Genetrix, with her son Caesarion as Cupid. Its owner Marcus Fabius Rufus most likely ordered its concealment behind a wall in reaction to the execution of Caesarion on orders of Octavian in 30 BC.
Green Caesar, posthumous portrait of the 1st century AD, Altes Museum, Berlin
Statue of Julius Caesar, Via dei Fori Imperiali, Rome
La clémence de César, Abel de Pujol, 1808
Denarius (42 BC) issued by Gaius Cassius Longinus and Lentulus Spinther, depicting the crowned head of Liberty and on the reverse a sacrificial jug and lituus, from the military mint in Smyrna. Caption: C. CASSI. IMP. LEIBERTAS / LENTVLVS SPINT.
The senators encircle Caesar, a 19th-century interpretation of the event by Carl Theodor von Piloty
The Death of Caesar, Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1867
Bust of Mark Antony made during the Flavian dynasty (69–96 AD)
Marc Antony's Oration at Caesar's Funeral by George Edward Robertson
Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, Caesar's adopted heir
The Chiaramonti Caesar bust, a posthumous portrait in marble, 44–30 BC, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican Museums
Reliefs of Cleopatra and her son by Julius Caesar, Caesarion, at the Temple of Dendera
Roman painting from the House of Giuseppe II, Pompeii, early 1st century AD, most likely depicting Cleopatra VII, wearing her royal diadem, consuming poison in an act of suicide, while her son Caesarion, also wearing a royal diadem, stands behind her
Julii Caesaris quae exstant (1678)
A 1783 edition of The Gallic Wars
Bust in Naples National Archaeological Museum, photograph published in 1902
Bust in the National Archaeological Museum of Naples
Bust of Julius Caesar from the British Museum
Modern bronze statue of Julius Caesar, Rimini, Italy
Statue of Julius Caesar, Via dei Fori Imperiali, Rome
Flowers placed on the remains of the altar of Caesar in the Roman Forum of Rome, Italy
Portrait at the Archaeological Museum of Sparta
Bronze statue at the Porta Palatina in Turin
Bust in the Archaeological Museum of Corinth

A member of the First Triumvirate, Caesar led the Roman armies in the Gallic Wars before defeating his political rival Pompey in a civil war, and subsequently became dictator of Rome from 49 BC until his assassination in 44 BC. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed the First Triumvirate, a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years.

The Luca Conference renewed the First Triumvirate and extended Caesar's governorship for another five years.

Map of the Roman Republic in the mid-1st century BC

Caesar's civil war

3 links

One of the last politico-military conflicts of the Roman Republic before its reorganization into the Roman Empire.

One of the last politico-military conflicts of the Roman Republic before its reorganization into the Roman Empire.

Map of the Roman Republic in the mid-1st century BC
Roman world in 56 BC, when Caesar, Crassus and Pompey met at Luca for a conference in which they decided to add another five years to the proconsulship of Caesar in Gaul and to give the province of Syria to Crassus and both Spanish provinces and Africa to Pompey.
Julius Caesar pausing on the banks of the Rubicon
Column of Julius Caesar, where he addressed his army to march on Rome and start the Civil War, Rimini, Italy
Caesar's campaign to Munda

It began as a series of political and military confrontations between Gaius Julius Caesar and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus.

Caesar had allied himself with Crassus and Pompey in the so-called First Triumvirate during his consulship.

The political alliance between the three began to fray in the mid 50s BC, but was put on hold with a renegotiation and the joint consulship of Pompey and Crassus in 55 BC. Their joint consulship assigned new provincial commands to the consuls, with Pompey receiving Spain while Crassus went to Syria to fight the Parthians; Caesar, for his part, had his proconsulship in Gaul renewed.

Vercingetorix Throws Down His Arms at the Feet of Julius Caesar, 1899, by Lionel Noel Royer

Gallic Wars

3 links

The Gallic Wars were waged between 58 BC and 50 BC by the Roman general Julius Caesar against the peoples of Gaul (present-day France, Belgium, along with parts of Germany and the United Kingdom).

The Gallic Wars were waged between 58 BC and 50 BC by the Roman general Julius Caesar against the peoples of Gaul (present-day France, Belgium, along with parts of Germany and the United Kingdom).

Vercingetorix Throws Down His Arms at the Feet of Julius Caesar, 1899, by Lionel Noel Royer
A modern re-enactor in 2012 wearing the gear that a VII legion standard bearer would have during the Gallic Wars era.
The Tusculum portrait of Julius Caesar
Multi-year overview of the Gallic Wars. The general routes taken by Caesar's army are indicated by the arrows.
The campaigns of 58 BC (In Italian). Note the Roman territory in yellow does not yet include modern day France, the Low Countries, or Germany. Caesar's expeditions are a red line, with battles noted. Celtic cities are in green, Germanic cities in orange.
Campaign map of 57 BC. Territory conquered the previous year is shaded red.
Denarius minted by Decimus Brutus in 48 BC, recalling his service in Gaul. The obverse features the head of Mars, and the reverse shows Gallic carnyces and shields.
Battle of Morbihan (in French, Rome is in red, Veneti in green)
Campaign map of 56 BC. Note Caesar's foray into the north of Gaul, Crassus' campaigns in the south, and the Battle of Morbihan off the west Atlantic coast.
Caesar's Rhine Bridge, by John Soane (1814)
Campaign map of 55 BC. Note Caesar's crossing of the Rhine, with Germanic counter movements in orange. Aside from the crossing of the Channel, few other actions were carried out that year.
Illustration of the Romans landing in Britain, featuring the standard bearer of the X legion
Campaign map of 54 BC. Tribes that revolted have flame icons near their name. Note the Gallic victory over Sabinus in northern Gaul, and Caesar's rush to relieve Cicero.
Denarius minted by L. Hostilius Saserna, 48 BC, showing the head of a captive Gaul, and a Britonic chariot on the reverse. Coin Expert Michael Crawford rejects the theory of several historians that the head on the obverse is that of Vercingetorix.
Campaign map of 53 BC. Again, revolting tribes are shown with flame icons. Despite having been conquered the prior year, Britain is not shaded in red, as it was not a territorial acquisition: the Britons had only been made tributaries.
Vercingétorix's Memorial in Alesia, where he made his last stand
Campaign map 52 BC. Most of south and central Gaul is in revolt. Note the Gallic victory at the battle of Gergovia, and Caesar's rush north from Rome.
Modern recreation of the Alesia fortifications, featuring rows of stakes in front of a moat, a high banked approach, and regular towers for Roman sentries
Campaign map of 51 BC. The last major revolts are put down, and mop-up operations occur in the southwest.
Gaul in 50 BC: fully conquered.
Gold stater of Vercingetorix, 53–52 BC.
A page from an 1864 printing of the Commentarii, made by Parrish & Willingham, a Confederate publisher during the American Civil War
Denarius from 48 BC, thought to depict an allegory of Gaul with a carnyx on the obverse and Diana of Ephesus with a stag on the reverse

Through his influence as part of the First Triumvirate, the political alliance which comprised Marcus Licinius Crassus, Pompey, and himself, during his consulship, Caesar had secured his assignment as proconsul (governor) to two provinces, Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum, by passage of the Lex Vatinia.

Non-military business for Caesar during the year included the politically pivotal Luca Conference in April, which gave him another 5 years as governor, allowing time to finish his conquest of Gaul.

First-century AD bust of Cicero in the Capitoline Museums, Rome

Cicero

2 links

Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher, and academic skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during the political crises that led to the establishment of the Roman Empire.

Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher, and academic skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during the political crises that led to the establishment of the Roman Empire.

First-century AD bust of Cicero in the Capitoline Museums, Rome
First-century AD bust of Cicero in the Capitoline Museums, Rome
The Young Cicero Reading by Vincenzo Foppa (fresco, 1464), now at the Wallace Collection
Arpino, Italy, birthplace of Cicero
300px
Cicero's death (France, 15th century)
The Vengeance of Fulvia by Francisco Maura y Montaner, 1888 depicting Fulvia inspecting the severed head of Cicero
Cicero about age 60, from a marble bust
Henry VIII's childhood copy of De Officiis, bearing the inscription in his hand, "Thys boke is myne Prynce Henry"
Marci Tullii Ciceronis Opera Omnia (1566)

He joined the army of Pompey in 49 BC and after Pompey's defeat at Pharsalus 48 BC, he was pardoned by Caesar.

Shortly after completing his consulship, in late 62 BC, Cicero arranged the purchase of a large townhouse on the Palatine Hill previously owned by Rome's richest citizen, Marcus Licinius Crassus.

The conference at Luca in 56 BC left the three-man alliance in domination of the republic's politics; this forced Cicero to recant and support the triumvirate out of fear from being entirely excluded from public life.

Lucca

1 links

City and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio River, in a fertile plain near the Ligurian Sea.

City and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio River, in a fertile plain near the Ligurian Sea.

Lucca Cathedral
Piazza dell'Anfiteatro and the Basilica of San Frediano
Palazzo Pfanner, garden view
Palazzo Ducale
A stretch of the walls
Via Fillungo view from the Clock Tower
Autumn atop bastions
View of Lucca from the Clock Tower
The courtyard of Museo Nazionale di Palazzo Mansi
Teatro del Giglio
Puccini's statue on Piazza Cittadella created by Vito Tongiani
San Michele in Foro
San Michele at Antraccoli
Guinigi Tower

At the Lucca Conference, in 56 BC, Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus reaffirmed their political alliance known as the First Triumvirate.