Lucius D. Clay

Lucius ClayClayGeneral ClayGeneral Lucius ClayClayalleeGeneral Lucius D. ClayLucius D.ClayLucius DuBignon Clay
General Lucius Dubignon Clay (April 23, 1898 – April 16, 1978) was a senior officer of the United States Army who was known for his administration of occupied Germany after World War II. He served as the deputy to General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1945; deputy military governor, Germany, 1946; Commander in Chief, U.S. Forces in Europe and military governor of the U.S.wikipedia
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Berlin Blockade

Berlin AirliftBerlin Air Liftblockade
Clay orchestrated the Berlin Airlift (1948–1949) when the USSR blockaded West Berlin.
In 1946 the Soviets stopped delivering agricultural goods from their zone in eastern Germany, and the American commander, Lucius D. Clay, responded by stopping shipments of dismantled industries from western Germany to the Soviet Union.

Marshall Plan

Marshall AidEuropean Recovery ProgramThe Marshall Plan
He commissioned Lewis H. Brown to research and write "A Report on Germany," which served as a detailed recommendation for the reconstruction of post-war Germany, and served as a basis for the Marshall Plan.
After World War II, in 1947, industrialist Lewis H. Brown wrote (at the request of General Lucius D. Clay) A Report on Germany, which served as a detailed recommendation for the reconstruction of post-war Germany, and served as a basis for the Marshall Plan.

A Report on Germany

He commissioned Lewis H. Brown to research and write "A Report on Germany," which served as a detailed recommendation for the reconstruction of post-war Germany, and served as a basis for the Marshall Plan.
After World War II, in 1947 Lewis H. Brown wrote at the request of General Lucius D. Clay A Report on Germany, which served as a detailed recommendation for the reconstruction of post-war Germany, and served as a basis for the Marshall Plan.

Office of Military Government, United States

OMGUSAmerican military governmentOffice of Military Government
On March 15, 1947, Clay succeeded Eisenhower as military governor (or "high commissioner" ) of occupied Germany—the head of the OMGUS, the "Office of Military Government, United States".
Under General Lucius D. Clay, it administered the area of Germany and sector of Berlin controlled by the United States Army.

Restatement of Policy on Germany

Stuttgart Speechannouncesduring a speech 6 September 1946
The speech, "Restatement of Policy on Germany", marked the formal transition in American occupation policy away from the Morgenthau Plan of economic dismantlement to one of economic reconstruction.
General Lucius Clay stated, "There is no choice between being a communist on 1,500 calories a day and a believer in democracy on a thousand".

Denison Dam

Denison, TX
In Rayburn's state of Texas, Clay supervised the building of the Denison Dam; at the time of its completion, in 1943, the largest earthen dam in the world.
[...] General Lucius D. Clay was the principal manager of the project.

Marietta, Georgia

MariettaMarietta, GALU Sports Complex
Clay was born in 1898 in Marietta, Georgia, the sixth and last child of Alexander S. Clay, who served in the U.S. Senate from 1897 to 1910. Marietta, Georgia, named one of its major streets Clay Road, and South Cobb High School's football stadium is named "Clay Stadium" in honor of his work in creating what is now Dobbins Air Force Base there.

Lampshades made from human skin

lampshadelampshades made from the skins of peoplehuman-skin lampshades
He also reduced the sentence of Ilse Koch, the "Beast of Buchenwald", who had been convicted of murder at Nuremberg and who had infamously (and perhaps inaccurately) been accused of having gloves and lampshades made from prisoners' skin.
After her conviction for war crimes, General Lucius D. Clay, the interim military governor of the American Zone in Germany, reduced her sentence to four years' prison on the grounds "there was no convincing evidence that she had selected Nazi concentration camp inmates for extermination in order to secure tattooed skins, or that she possessed any articles made of human skin".

Alexander S. Clay

Alexander ClayAlexander Stephens Clay
Clay was born in 1898 in Marietta, Georgia, the sixth and last child of Alexander S. Clay, who served in the U.S. Senate from 1897 to 1910.
One son was General Lucius D. Clay, and another son was Eugene Herbert Clay.

Crusade for Freedom

set up during the Cold War
One of his first duties as President Eisenhower's emissary, and as the national chairman of the Crusade for Freedom, was to dedicate the city of Berlin's Liberty Bell.
The first chairman was Lucius D. Clay, Eisenhower's successor as military governor of occupied Germany.

Interstate Highway System

Interstate HighwayInterstate HighwaysInterstate
In 1954, he was called upon by President Eisenhower to help forge a plan for financing the proposed Interstate highway system.
In 1954, Eisenhower appointed General Lucius D. Clay to head a committee charged with proposing an interstate highway system plan.

Morgenthau Plan

JCS 1067Joint Chiefs of Staff Directive 1067harsh peace for the German people
The speech, "Restatement of Policy on Germany", marked the formal transition in American occupation policy away from the Morgenthau Plan of economic dismantlement to one of economic reconstruction. He would later remark regarding the occupation directive guiding his and General Eisenhower's actions, "there was no doubt that JCS 1067 contemplated the Carthaginian peace which dominated our operations in Germany during the early months of occupation."
General Lucius Clay stated "There is no choice between being a communist on 1,500 calories a day and a believer in democracy on a thousand."

Melvin J. Lasky

Der MonatMelvin Lasky
During this time he hired American intellectual and former U.S. Army combat historian Melvin J. Lasky.
Lasky remained in Germany after the war, making his home in Berlin, where he worked for American military governor Lucius D. Clay.

Ilse Koch

Ilseturned it into a lamp
He also reduced the sentence of Ilse Koch, the "Beast of Buchenwald", who had been convicted of murder at Nuremberg and who had infamously (and perhaps inaccurately) been accused of having gloves and lampshades made from prisoners' skin.
Gen. Lucius D. Clay was the interim military governor of the American Zone in Germany, and he reduced the judgment to four years' imprisonment on 8 June 1948, after she had served two years of her sentence, on the grounds that "there was no convincing evidence that she had selected inmates for extermination in order to secure tattooed skins, or that she possessed any articles made of human skin".

Carthaginian peace

Carthagenian settlement
He would later remark regarding the occupation directive guiding his and General Eisenhower's actions, "there was no doubt that JCS 1067 contemplated the Carthaginian peace which dominated our operations in Germany during the early months of occupation."
General Lucius D. Clay, a deputy to general Dwight D. Eisenhower and, in 1945, Military Governor of the U.S. Occupation Zone in Germany, would later remark that "there was no doubt that JCS 1067 contemplated the Carthaginian peace which dominated our operations in Germany during the early months of occupation. This is while the US was following the Morgenthau Plan."

Freedom Bell

Liberty Bell
One of his first duties as President Eisenhower's emissary, and as the national chairman of the Crusade for Freedom, was to dedicate the city of Berlin's Liberty Bell.
The campaign was launched by U.S. general Dwight D. Eisenhower on Labor Day, 1950, with General Lucius D. Clay, later known as the "father of the Berlin airlift", as its chairman.

Dobbins Air Reserve Base

Dobbins AFBDobbins Air Force BaseDobbins ARB
Marietta, Georgia, named one of its major streets Clay Road, and South Cobb High School's football stadium is named "Clay Stadium" in honor of his work in creating what is now Dobbins Air Force Base there.
The push to build this airport came in 1940 when President Franklin D. Roosevelt selected General Lucius D. Clay of the Army Air Corps to be the chief of the new Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA), which was engaged in a huge program of airfield construction.

Lewis H. Brown

He commissioned Lewis H. Brown to research and write "A Report on Germany," which served as a detailed recommendation for the reconstruction of post-war Germany, and served as a basis for the Marshall Plan.
After World War II, at the request of General Lucius D. Clay, Brown wrote a book entitled "A Report on Germany" (Farrar, Straus and Company, New York, 1947), which served as a detailed recommendation for the reconstruction of post-war Germany, and served as a basis for the Marshall Plan.

Harry S. Truman

Harry TrumanTrumanHarry S Truman
On June 26, 1948, two days after the Soviets imposed the Berlin Blockade, Clay gave the order for the Berlin Airlift (only afterwards receiving authorization from President Truman).
The commander of the U.S. occupation zone in Germany, General Lucius D. Clay, proposed sending a large armored column across the Soviet zone to West Berlin with instructions to defend itself if it were stopped or attacked.

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Dwight EisenhowerEisenhowerPresident Eisenhower
On March 15, 1947, Clay succeeded Eisenhower as military governor (or "high commissioner" ) of occupied Germany—the head of the OMGUS, the "Office of Military Government, United States". He served as the deputy to General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1945; deputy military governor, Germany, 1946; Commander in Chief, U.S. Forces in Europe and military governor of the U.S. Zone, Germany, 1947–1949.
Eisenhower selected Joseph M. Dodge as his budget director, then asked Herbert Brownell Jr. and Lucius D. Clay to make recommendations for his cabinet appointments.

Ich bin ein Berliner

West Berlin speecha widespread misconceptionaddresses
During his famous Ich bin ein Berliner-speech Kennedy said: "I am proud to come here in the company of my fellow American, General Clay, who has been in this city during its great moments of crisis and will come again if ever needed."
Behind the long table set up on the steps of the Rathaus Schöneberg were U.S. and German dignitaries, including Dean Rusk (Kennedy's Secretary of State), Lucius D. Clay (the US administrator of Germany), Konrad Adenauer (the German chancellor), Willy Brandt, and Otto Bach (President of the Abgeordnetenhaus of Berlin).

National Committee for a Free Europe

Free Europe CommitteeNational Committee for Free Europe
Early board members included Dwight Eisenhower, Lucius D. Clay, Cecil B. DeMille, and Henry Luce.

West Point Cemetery

United States Military Academy Post CemeteryUnited States Military Academy CemeteryWest Point National Cemetery
Clay lies buried in West Point Cemetery, between the graves of Apollo I astronaut Ed White and Panama Canal chief engineer George W. Goethals.

Lucius D. Clay Jr.

Lucius D. Clay, Jr.Gen. Lucius D. Clay
Clay's son, General Lucius D. Clay Jr., held the positions of commander-in-chief of the North American Air Defense Command, the Continental Air Defense Command, and the United States element of NORAD, and was also a commander of the U.S. Air Force Aerospace Defense Command.
His father, Lucius D. Clay Sr. and his brother, Frank Butner Clay, were also both generals, and his grandfather was Senator Alexander Stephens Clay of Georgia.

Society of the Cincinnati

Society of CincinnatiThe Society of the CincinnatiOrder of Cincinnatus
In the same year he was elected as an honorary member of the North Carolina Society of the Cincinnati.