A report on Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus

Roman senator and brother of the famous writer Seneca.

- Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus

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Ancient bust of Seneca, part of the Double Herm of Socrates and Seneca

Seneca the Younger

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Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and, in one work, satirist, from the post-Augustan age of Latin literature.

Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and, in one work, satirist, from the post-Augustan age of Latin literature.

Ancient bust of Seneca, part of the Double Herm of Socrates and Seneca
Modern statue of Seneca in Córdoba
Nero and Seneca, by Eduardo Barrón (1904). Museo del Prado
Manuel Domínguez Sánchez, The suicide of Seneca (1871), Museo del Prado
Lodovico Lana, Death of Seneca, National Gallery of Art
First page of the Naturales Quaestiones, made for the Catalan-Aragonese court
Woodcut illustration of the suicide of Seneca and the attempted suicide of his wife Pompeia Paulina
Naturales quaestiones, 1522
Plato, Seneca, and Aristotle in a medieval manuscript illustration (c. 1325–35)
The "Pseudo-Seneca", a Roman bust found at Herculaneum, one of a series of similar sculptures known since the Renaissance, once identified as Seneca. Now commonly identified as Hesiod
"Seneca", ancient hero of the modern Córdoba; this architectural roundel in Seville is based on the "Pseudo-Seneca" (illustration above)
Baroque marble imaginary portrait bust of Seneca, by an anonymous sculptor of the 17th century. Museo del Prado

His father was Seneca the Elder, his elder brother was Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus, and his nephew was the poet Lucan.

The Apostle Paul,, Rembrandt

Paul the Apostle

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Christian apostle who spread the teachings of Jesus in the first-century world.

Christian apostle who spread the teachings of Jesus in the first-century world.

The Apostle Paul,, Rembrandt
The Conversion of Saul, fresco by Michelangelo, 1542–1545
Geography relevant to Paul's life, stretching from Jerusalem to Rome
Conversion on the Way to Damascus (1601), by Caravaggio
The Conversion of Saint Paul on the Way to Damascus (c. 1889), by José Ferraz de Almeida Júnior
Caravaggio (1571–1610), The Conversion of Saint Paul, 1600
St Paul by Peter Paul Rubens
The Apostle Paul,, Rembrandt
The house believed to be of Ananias of Damascus in Damascus
Bab Kisan, believed to be where Paul escaped from persecution in Damascus
Map of the missionary journeys of St. Paul
Saint Paul delivering the Areopagus sermon in Athens, by Raphael, 1515. This sermon addressed early issues in Christology.
The Preaching of Saint Paul at Ephesus by Eustache Le Sueur (1649)
Saint Paul arrested, early 1900s Bible illustration
St. Paul's Grotto in Rabat, Malta
Paul Arrives in Rome, from Die Bibel in Bildern
The Beheading of Saint Paul by Enrique Simonet, 1887
Greek Orthodox mural painting of Saint Paul
Statue of St. Paul in the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran by Pierre-Étienne Monnot
Paul Writing His Epistles, painting attributed to Valentin de Boulogne, 17th century
Russian Orthodox icon of the Apostle Paul, 18th century (Iconostasis of Transfiguration Church, Kizhi Monastery, Karelia, Russia)
Saint Paul, Byzantine ivory relief, 6th – early 7th century (Musée de Cluny)
Paul the Apostle, (16th-century) attributed to Lucas van Leyden
Statue of St. Paul (1606) by Gregorio Fernández
A statue of Paul holding a scroll (symbolising the Scriptures) and the sword (symbolising his martyrdom)
Facial composite of Saint Paul, created by experts of the Landeskriminalamt of North Rhine-Westphalia using historical sources

The reference in Acts to Proconsul Gallio helps ascertain this date (cf.

Seneca the Elder

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Roman writer, born of a wealthy equestrian family of Corduba, Hispania.

Roman writer, born of a wealthy equestrian family of Corduba, Hispania.

He was the father of Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus, best known as a Proconsul of Achaia; his second son was the dramatist and Stoic philosopher Seneca the Younger (Lucius), who was tutor of Nero, and his third son, Marcus Annaeus Mela, became the father of the poet Lucan.

From the 1543 edition, published by Antonio Constantino

De Vita Beata

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From the 1543 edition, published by Antonio Constantino

De Vita Beata ("On the Happy Life") is a dialogue written by Seneca the Younger around the year 58 AD. It was intended for his older brother Gallio, to whom Seneca also dedicated his dialogue entitled De Ira ("On Anger").

From the 1643 edition, published by Francesco Baba

De Ira

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Latin work by Seneca (4 BC–65 AD).

Latin work by Seneca (4 BC–65 AD).

From the 1643 edition, published by Francesco Baba

The exact date of the writing of the work is unknown, apart from an earliest date (terminum post quem), deduced from repeated references by Seneca to the episodic anger of Caligula, who died 24 January 41 AD. Seneca refers to his brother by his native name, Novatus, rather than his adoptive one, Gallio, which he bore by 52/53 AD, suggesting the work may date from the mid 40s AD.

The Temple of Apollo at Delphi

Delphi Inscription

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Name given to the collection of nine fragments of a letter written by the Roman emperor Claudius c. 52 CE which was discovered early in the 20th century at the Temple of Apollo in Delphi, Greece.

Name given to the collection of nine fragments of a letter written by the Roman emperor Claudius c. 52 CE which was discovered early in the 20th century at the Temple of Apollo in Delphi, Greece.

The Temple of Apollo at Delphi
Delphi museum - Fragment with the name ΓΑΛΛίΩΝ

The reference to proconsul Gallio in the inscription provides an important marker for developing a chronology of the life of Apostle Paul by relating it to the trial of Paul in Achaea mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles (Acts 18:12-17).

Achaea

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One of the regional units of Greece.

One of the regional units of Greece.

Gulf of Patras
Mount Aroania or Chelmos.
Mount Erymanthos
River Ladon
Karst depression (=Polje) near Kato Lousi village (Άνω_Λουσοί_Αχαΐας), north of Kastria
Kalavryta
Map of ancient Peloponnese.
Byzantine Greece, ca. 900 AD
Map of Frankish Greece with the Principality of Achaea.
Patras
Agia Lavra monastery
Pampeloponnisiako Stadium

In AD 51/52, Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus was proconsul of Achaea, and is portrayed (under the name "Gallio") in the book of the Acts of the Apostles, in the Bible, as presiding over the trial of the Apostle Paul in Corinth.

Portrait of Claudius, Altes Museum, Berlin

Claudius' expulsion of Jews from Rome

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Expulsion of Jews from Rome by the Roman emperor Claudius, who was in office AD 41–54, appear in the Acts of the Apostles , and in the writings of Roman historians Suetonius (c.

Expulsion of Jews from Rome by the Roman emperor Claudius, who was in office AD 41–54, appear in the Acts of the Apostles , and in the writings of Roman historians Suetonius (c.

Portrait of Claudius, Altes Museum, Berlin
The Temple of Apollo, where the Delphi Inscription was discovered in the 20th century, used to date the proconsulship of Gallio which provides a peg for the chronology of Paul.
A page from a sixth-century Paulus Orosius Histories manuscript, Florence.

More detailed estimates such as those based on the AD 49 date by Orosius or the reduction of the AD 53 upper limit due to Proconsul Gallio's health are possible but controversial.

Acts 26:7–8, 20 on Papyrus 29 (c. AD 250).

Acts of the Apostles

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Fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian Church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.

Fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian Church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.

Acts 26:7–8, 20 on Papyrus 29 (c. AD 250).
Ministry of the Apostles: Russian icon by Fyodor Zubov, 1660
Acts 1:1–2a from the 14th century Minuscule 223
Paul's conversion, from Livre d'Heures d'Étienne Chevalier (c. 1450–1460), Jean Fouquet, in the Château de Chantilly
Saint Paul Writing His Epistles, ascribed to Valentin de Boulogne, 17th century

Trial before Gallio c. 51–52 (18:12–17)

Sosthenes

Sosthenes

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Sosthenes

Sosthenes (Greek: Σωσθένης, Sōsthénēs, "safe in strength") was the chief ruler of the synagogue at Corinth, who, according to the Acts of the Apostles, was seized and beaten by the mob in the presence of Gallio, the Roman governor, when Gallio refused to proceed against Paul at the instigation of the Jews.