Luis Walter Alvarez

Luis AlvarezLuis W. AlvarezLuisAlvarez, Luis WalterL.W. AlvarezLuis W. ÁlvarezLuis Walter Alvarez (Nobel Prize in Physics) Luis Walter ÁlvarezLuis Álvarez
Luis Walter Alvarez (June 13, 1911 – September 1, 1988) was an American experimental physicist, inventor, and professor who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1968 for development of the hydrogen bubble chamber enabling discovery of resonance states in particle physics.wikipedia
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Tritium

3 Hhydrogen-3triton
He produced tritium using the cyclotron and measured its lifetime. When deuterium (hydrogen-2) is bombarded with deuterium, the fusion reaction yields either tritium (hydrogen-3) plus a proton or helium-3 plus a neutron (+ → + p or + n).
However, their experiment could not isolate tritium, which was later accomplished by Luis Alvarez and Robert Cornog, who also realized tritium's radioactivity.

Neutron magnetic moment

magnetic momentmagnetic moment of the neutronmagnetic dipole moment
In collaboration with Felix Bloch, he measured the magnetic moment of the neutron.
Luis Alvarez and Felix Bloch made the first accurate, direct measurement of the neutron's magnetic moment in 1940.

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Lawrence Radiation LaboratoryBerkeley Radiation LaboratoryRadiation Laboratory
After receiving his PhD from the University of Chicago in 1936, Alvarez went to work for Ernest Lawrence at the Radiation Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley.
The Alvarez Physics Memos are a set of informal working papers of the large group of physicists, engineers, computer programmers, and technicians led by Luis W. Alvarez from the early 1950s until his death in 1988.

Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event

extinction of the dinosaursCretaceous-Paleogene extinction eventK-Pg extinction event
With his son, geologist Walter Alvarez, he developed the Alvarez hypothesis which proposes that the extinction event that wiped out the dinosaurs was the result of an asteroid impact.
As originally proposed in 1980 by a team of scientists led by Luis Alvarez and his son Walter Alvarez, it is now generally thought that the K–Pg extinction was caused by the impact of a massive comet or asteroid 10 to 15 km wide, 66 million years ago, which devastated the global environment, mainly through a lingering impact winter which halted photosynthesis in plants and plankton.

Exploding-bridgewire detonator

exploding bridgewire detonatordetonator in nuclear munitionsdetonators
Alvarez worked on the design of explosive lenses, and the development of exploding-bridgewire detonators.
The EBW was invented by Luis Alvarez and Lawrence Johnston for the Fat Man–type bombs of the Manhattan Project, during their work in Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Walter Alvarez

Walter
With his son, geologist Walter Alvarez, he developed the Alvarez hypothesis which proposes that the extinction event that wiped out the dinosaurs was the result of an asteroid impact.
He is most widely known for the theory that dinosaurs were killed by an asteroid impact, developed in collaboration with his father, Nobel Prize winning physicist Luis Alvarez.

Alvarez hypothesis

asteroidasteroid impact hypothesishypothesis
With his son, geologist Walter Alvarez, he developed the Alvarez hypothesis which proposes that the extinction event that wiped out the dinosaurs was the result of an asteroid impact.
The hypothesis is named after the father-and-son team of scientists Luis and Walter Alvarez, who first suggested it in 1980.

Richard A. Muller

Richard MullerRich Muller
Alvarez was the doctoral advisor of astrophysicist Richard Muller.
Muller began his career as a graduate student under Nobel laureate Luis Alvarez performing particle physics experiments and working with bubble chambers.

Project Alberta

1st Technical Service Detachment
As a member of Project Alberta, he observed the Trinity nuclear test from a B-29 Superfortress, and later the bombing of Hiroshima from the B-29 The Great Artiste.
Philip Morrison was the head of the Pit Crew, Bernard Waldman and Luis Alvarez led the Aerial Observation Team, and Sheldon Dike was in charge of the Aircraft Ordnance Team.

J. Robert Oppenheimer

Robert OppenheimerOppenheimerRobert J. Oppenheimer
Alvarez spent a few months at the University of Chicago working on nuclear reactors for Enrico Fermi before coming to Los Alamos to work for Robert Oppenheimer on the Manhattan project.
In spite of this, observers such as Nobel Prize-winning physicist Luis Alvarez have suggested that if he had lived long enough to see his predictions substantiated by experiment, Oppenheimer might have won a Nobel Prize for his work on gravitational collapse, concerning neutron stars and black holes.

Mabel Alvarez

His aunt, Mabel Alvarez, was a California artist specializing in oil painting.
Her nephew Luis Alvarez (son of Walter), was a Nobel Prize winner in physics.

Beta decay

β + beta emissionbeta
Alvarez devised a set of experiments to observe K-electron capture in radioactive nuclei, predicted by the beta decay theory but never before observed.
K-electron capture was first observed in 1937 by Luis Alvarez, in the nuclide 48 V. Alvarez went on to study electron capture in 67 Ga and other nuclides.

Helium-3

3 HeHelium 3 3 He ("helium 3")
When deuterium (hydrogen-2) is bombarded with deuterium, the fusion reaction yields either tritium (hydrogen-3) plus a proton or helium-3 plus a neutron (+ → + p or + n).
Isolation of helium-3 was first accomplished by Luis Alvarez and Robert Cornog in 1939.

University of Chicago

The University of ChicagoChicagoChicago University
After receiving his PhD from the University of Chicago in 1936, Alvarez went to work for Ernest Lawrence at the Radiation Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley. Alvarez spent a few months at the University of Chicago working on nuclear reactors for Enrico Fermi before coming to Los Alamos to work for Robert Oppenheimer on the Manhattan project.
In science, alumni include astronomers Carl Sagan, a prominent contributor to the scientific research of extraterrestrial life, and Edwin Hubble, known for "Hubble's Law", NASA astronaut John M. Grunsfeld, geneticist James Watson, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA, experimental physicist Luis Alvarez, popular environmentalist David Suzuki, balloonist Jeannette Piccard, biologists Ernest Everett Just and Lynn Margulis, computer scientist Richard Hamming, the creator of the Hamming Code, lithium-ion battery developer John B. Goodenough, mathematician and Fields Medal recipient Paul Joseph Cohen, geochemist Clair Cameron Patterson, who developed the uranium-lead dating method into lead-lead dating, geologist and geophysicist M. King Hubbert, known for the Hubbert curve and Hubbert peak theory, the main components of peak oil, and "Queen of Carbon" Mildred Dresselhaus.

Trinity (nuclear test)

Trinity testTrinityTrinity nuclear test
As a member of Project Alberta, he observed the Trinity nuclear test from a B-29 Superfortress, and later the bombing of Hiroshima from the B-29 The Great Artiste.
The piezoelectric gauges developed by Anderson's team correctly indicated an explosion of 108 tonTNT, but Luis Alvarez and Waldman's airborne condenser gauges were far less accurate.

JASON (advisory group)

JASON Defense Advisory GroupJASONJASON advisory group
Alvarez was a member of the JASON Defense Advisory Group, the Bohemian Club, and the Republican Party.
Some additional Nobel Prize-winning members of JASON include Donald Glaser, Val Fitch, Murray Gell-Mann, Luis Walter Alvarez, Henry Way Kendall, and Steven Weinberg.

Electron capture

ECK-captureK-electron capture
Alvarez devised a set of experiments to observe K-electron capture in radioactive nuclei, predicted by the beta decay theory but never before observed.
K-electron capture was first observed by Luis Alvarez, in vanadium-48.

Phased array

phased array radarphased-arrayphased-array radar
In working on the Microwave Early Warning system (MEW), Alvarez invented a linear dipole array antenna that not only suppressed the unwanted side lobes of the radiation field, but also could be electronically scanned without the need for mechanical scanning.
During World War II, Nobel laureate Luis Alvarez used phased array transmission in a rapidly steerable radar system for "ground-controlled approach", a system to aid in the landing of aircraft.

San Francisco Polytechnic High School

Polytechnic High SchoolPolyPolytechnic
He attended Madison School in San Francisco from 1918 to 1924, and then San Francisco Polytechnic High School.

Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

atomic bombing of HiroshimaHiroshimabombing of Hiroshima
As a member of Project Alberta, he observed the Trinity nuclear test from a B-29 Superfortress, and later the bombing of Hiroshima from the B-29 The Great Artiste.
In 1949, one of the authors of the letter, Luis Alvarez, met with Sagane and signed the letter.

Walter C. Alvarez

Walter Alvarez
Luis Walter Alvarez was born in San Francisco on June 13, 1911, the second child and oldest son of Walter C. Alvarez, a physician, and his wife Harriet née Smyth, and a grandson of Luis F. Álvarez, a Spanish physician, born in Asturias, Spain, that lived in Cuba for a while and finally settled in the United States, who found a better method for diagnosing macular leprosy.
Alvarez was married to the former Harriet Skidmore Smythe and the couple had four children: Gladys, Luis, Robert and Bernice.

Collier Trophy

Robert J. Collier TrophyCollierAero Club of America Trophy
Alvarez was awarded the National Aeronautic Association's Collier Trophy in 1945 "for his conspicuous and outstanding initiative in the concept and development of the Ground Control Approach system for safe landing of aircraft under all weather and traffic conditions".

Neutron

neutronsfree neutronn
When deuterium (hydrogen-2) is bombarded with deuterium, the fusion reaction yields either tritium (hydrogen-3) plus a proton or helium-3 plus a neutron (+ → + p or + n).
The value for the neutron's magnetic moment was first directly measured by Luis Alvarez and Felix Bloch at Berkeley, California, in 1940.

Luis F. Álvarez

Luis F. AlvarezLuis Fernández Álvarez
Luis Walter Alvarez was born in San Francisco on June 13, 1911, the second child and oldest son of Walter C. Alvarez, a physician, and his wife Harriet née Smyth, and a grandson of Luis F. Álvarez, a Spanish physician, born in Asturias, Spain, that lived in Cuba for a while and finally settled in the United States, who found a better method for diagnosing macular leprosy.

The Great Artiste

As a member of Project Alberta, he observed the Trinity nuclear test from a B-29 Superfortress, and later the bombing of Hiroshima from the B-29 The Great Artiste.