Luke Howard

First cloud classificationLuke Howard, FRS
Luke Howard, (28 November 1772 – 21 March 1864) was a British manufacturing chemist and an amateur meteorologist with broad interests in science.wikipedia
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Cloud

cloudscloud formationcloudy
His lasting contribution to science is a nomenclature system for clouds, which he proposed in an 1802 presentation to the Askesian Society.
Cloud types in the troposphere, the atmospheric layer closest to Earth's surface, have Latin names due to the universal adoption of Luke Howard's nomenclature.

John Eliot Howard

Howard
They had two sons, Robert Howard and John Eliot Howard, who were ultimately to take over their father's chemical manufacturing business.
Howard was born in Plaistow, Essex, the son of Luke Howard a noted Quaker meteorologist and chemist.

William Allen (Quaker)

William AllenWilliam Allen FRS
In 1798, he entered into partnership with William Allen to form the pharmaceutical company of Allen and Howard.
This strengthened his ties with the eminent Humphry Davy, and in due course with his long-standing friend Luke Howard, who was likewise elected to Fellowship of the Royal Society, though some years later.

Askesian Society

His lasting contribution to science is a nomenclature system for clouds, which he proposed in an 1802 presentation to the Askesian Society.
Members had to present a paper or pay a fine, which led to Luke Howard's 1802 presentation On The Modification of Clouds, which established the still used terms "stratus," "cumulus," and "cirrus."

Plymouth Brethren

BrethrenPlymouth BrotherBrethren Movement
Howard was subsequently baptized into the Plymouth Brethren in 1837 by Crewdson. He was a Quaker, later converting to the Plymouth Brethren, and became a pharmacist by profession.

Urban heat island

heat islandheat island effecturban heat islands
In it, he was first to note the heat island effect, showing that temperatures in London, compared to those simultaneously measured in the surrounding countryside, were 3.7 °F (2.1 °C) warmer at night, and cooler during the day, and to attribute the concentration of smog (which he called 'city fog') to this phenomenon.
The phenomenon was first investigated and described by Luke Howard in the 1810s, although he was not the one to name the phenomenon.

Plaistow, Newham

PlaistowGreengate HousePlaistow, Essex
Howard operated the partnership's factory built on the marshes at Plaistow, to the east of London.
* Luke Howard, who in 1802 devised the naming and classification of clouds and cloud formations still in popular use today, and who operated a business in pharmaceuticals in Plaistow from 1796 until 1803 when he moved the business to nearby Stratford.

Pharmacist

pharmacistsdruggistchemist
He was a Quaker, later converting to the Plymouth Brethren, and became a pharmacist by profession.

Brook Street Chapel

Originally known as Brook Street Meeting House, it is now the Brook Street Chapel found on Tottenham High Road.
Prominent amongst the original members were the chemist John Eliot Howard and his brother Robert, and some funding was also provided by their father, the meteorologist Luke Howard, who moved to Tottenham shortly after.

Ackworth, West Yorkshire

AckworthAckworth Moor TopHigh Ackworth
He spent the years 1824 to 1852 in Ackworth, Yorkshire.
Luke Howard, amateur meteorologist and namer of the clouds, lived at Ackworth Court.

John Constable

ConstableConstable, JohnConstable Country
Howard also inspired Shelley's poem "The Cloud" and informed John Constable's paintings and studies of skies and the writings and art of John Ruskin, who used Howard's cloud classification in his criticisms of landscape paintings in Modern Painters.
In this habit he is known to have been influenced by the pioneering work of the meteorologist Luke Howard on the classification of clouds; Constable's annotations of his own copy of Researches About Atmospheric Phaenomena by Thomas Forster show him to have been fully abreast of meteorological terminology.

Ralph Abercromby (meteorologist)

Ralph Abercromby
His classification of clouds was later adopted by Ralph Abercromby and Hugo Hildebrand Hildebrandsson, who developed and popularised the system laid out by Howard.
He wrote on the nomenclature of cloud formation, and figured prominently in the history of the classification system developed by Luke Howard; along with Hugo Hildebrand Hildebrandsson (1838-1920) he developed the system laid out by Howard.

Meteorology

meteorologicalmeteorologistmeteorologists
In 1802–1803, Luke Howard wrote On the Modification of Clouds, in which he assigns cloud types Latin names.

Tottenham

Tottenham, LondonTottenham cakeTottenham, Middlesex
An English Heritage blue plaque dedicated to Howard at 7 Bruce Grove, Tottenham (the house in which he died, aged 91), states simply his fame as "Namer of Clouds".

Rees's Cyclopædia

Rees's ''CyclopaediaRees's ''CyclopædiaRees's Cyclopaedia
For Rees's Cyclopædia he contributed articles on meteorology, but the titles are not known.
Amongst the eminent writers engaged by Rees were Dr Lant Carpenter (1780–1870) on education, mental and moral philosophy; Tiberius Cavallo (1799–1809) on electricity and magnetism; John Flaxman (1755–1826) on sculpture; Luke Howard (1772–1867) on meteorology; John Landseer (1769–1852) on engraving; Sir William Lawrence, (1783–1867) on human and comparative anatomy; Sir James Edward Smith (1759–1828) on botany; David Mushet on metallurgy and chemistry; Rev. William Pearson (1767–1847) on astronomy; Sir Thomas Phillips (1770–1875) on painting.

Richard Hamblyn

Hamblyn, Richard
His books include The Invention of Clouds: How an Amateur Meteorologist Forged the Language of the Skies (2001, Picador, ISBN: 978-0330391955), an account of the life and work of Luke Howard which won a 2001 Los Angeles Times Book Prize and was shortlisted for the 2002 Samuel Johnson Prize; Terra: Tales of the Earth (2009, Picador, ISBN: 978-0330490733), a study of natural disasters, a BBC Wales Science Book of the Year; and an anthology of science writing, The Art of Science: a Natural History of Ideas (2011, Picador, ISBN: 978-0330490764).

Chemist

chemistsresearch chemistchemical
Luke Howard, (28 November 1772 – 21 March 1864) was a British manufacturing chemist and an amateur meteorologist with broad interests in science.

Amateur

(a)amateurismdilettante
Luke Howard, (28 November 1772 – 21 March 1864) was a British manufacturing chemist and an amateur meteorologist with broad interests in science.

Meteorologist

weather forecasterweathermanforecasters
Luke Howard, (28 November 1772 – 21 March 1864) was a British manufacturing chemist and an amateur meteorologist with broad interests in science.

Burford

Burford, OxfordshireBattle of BurfordSt John the Baptist Church, Burford
Howard attended a Quaker grammar school in Burford, Oxfordshire where the headteacher was renowned for his flogging of slow-to-learn pupils.

Isaac Crewdson

Beacon Controversy
A larger rift in the Society, the members being known as Beaconites being followers of Isaac Crewdson's A Beacon to the Society of Friends, led to Howard's final resignation from the Society in 1836.

Winchmore Hill

St. Paul's SchoolSt Paul's Primary SchoolSt Paul's School
Howard died on 21 March 1864 at Bruce Grove, Tottenham and is buried at Winchmore Hill in Enfield, north London.

London Borough of Enfield

EnfieldEnfield, LondonEnfield, England
Howard died on 21 March 1864 at Bruce Grove, Tottenham and is buried at Winchmore Hill in Enfield, north London.

Quakers

QuakerSociety of FriendsReligious Society of Friends
He was a Quaker, later converting to the Plymouth Brethren, and became a pharmacist by profession. A larger rift in the Society, the members being known as Beaconites being followers of Isaac Crewdson's A Beacon to the Society of Friends, led to Howard's final resignation from the Society in 1836. Although a Quaker, he broke with the Society in 1825 following a dispute over apocryphal texts.

Fellow

fellowshipSenior Fellowfellows
He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1821.