Lulu (opera)wikipedia
Lulu (composed from 1929 to 1935, premièred incomplete in 1937 and complete in 1979) is an opera in three acts by Alban Berg.
Luluopera of the same nameLulu'' (opera)opera

Violin Concerto (Berg)

Violin ConcertoBergAlban Berg's Violin Concerto
The violin concerto was completed swiftly, between April and August of that year but the time he spent on that meant he was unable to complete the opera before his sudden death on 24 December.
When he first received the commission, Berg was working on his opera Lulu, and he did not begin work on the concerto for some months.

Joan Carroll (soprano)

Joan Carroll
In its two-act form plus sketches of the third act, Lulu made its American debut at the Santa Fe Opera in New Mexico during the 1963 season, with the American soprano Joan Carroll in the title role, together with Donald Gramm (Dr Schön), Elaine Bonazzi (Geschwitz), and George Shirley (Alwa) with Robert Craft conducting The Opera's general director, John Crosby, attempted to negotiate for Santa Fe to stage the American premiere of the full three-act opera, but was not successful.
Joan Carroll (born 27 July 1932) is an American operatic coloratura soprano who appeared in the title role of Alban Berg's Lulu at the work's US premiere at the Santa Fe Opera in 1963, and often in opera houses in Europe.

Teresa Stratas

Stratas
Celebrated Lulus have included Evelyn Lear, Teresa Stratas, Nancy Shade, Karan Armstrong, Julia Migenes, Barbara Hannigan, and Christine Schäfer.
She is especially well known for her award-winning recording of Alban Berg's Lulu.

Donald Gramm

In its two-act form plus sketches of the third act, Lulu made its American debut at the Santa Fe Opera in New Mexico during the 1963 season, with the American soprano Joan Carroll in the title role, together with Donald Gramm (Dr Schön), Elaine Bonazzi (Geschwitz), and George Shirley (Alwa) with Robert Craft conducting The Opera's general director, John Crosby, attempted to negotiate for Santa Fe to stage the American premiere of the full three-act opera, but was not successful.
Among the most notable of his many operatic roles were the title role in Verdi's Falstaff, Leporello in Mozart's Don Giovanni, and Dr. Schön and Jack the Ripper in Berg's Lulu.

Friedrich Cerha

Friedrich CerhaCerhaCerha, Friedrich
Since its publication in 1979, however, the version including Friedrich Cerha's orchestration of the act 3 sketches has become standard.
Apart from his compositions, Cerha widely earned a reputation as an interpreter of the works of Alban Berg, Arnold Schoenberg and Anton Webern; his affinity for the works of the second Viennese school culminated in the completion of Alban Berg's opera Lulu by finishing the instrumentation of the 3rd act and filling the gaps in the score (premiered by Pierre Boulez in Paris, 1979).

Anja Silja

Anja Silja
The last recording made of the original two-act version—Christoph von Dohnányi conducting the Vienna Philharmonic, with Anja Silja in the title role (Decca/London, recorded 1976 and released 1978)—presented it in this form.
Outside Bayreuth, the soprano appeared in Wieland Wagner's productions of Salome, Tristan und Isolde, Die Walküre and Siegfried (as Brünnhilde), Elektra, Fidelio, Otello, Lulu, Wozzeck (conducted by Pierre Boulez), and other operas.

Patrice Chéreau

Patrice ChéreauChéreau
Published in 1979, the Cerha completion premiered on 24 February the same year at the Opera Garnier and was conducted by Pierre Boulez, with Stratas singing the lead role; the production (by Patrice Chéreau) was a sensation and the recording won the Gramophone Award for 1979.
He accepted selected opera productions, such as: the first performance of the three-act version of Alban Berg's Lulu, completed by Friedrich Cerha, at the Paris Opera in 1979; Berg's Wozzeck at the Staatsoper Berlin in 1994; Wagner's Tristan und Isolde at La Scala in 2007; Janáček's From the House of the Dead, shown at several festivals and the Metropolitan Opera; and, as his last staging, Elektra by Richard Strauss, first performed at the Aix-en-Provence Festival in July 2013.

Pierre Boulez

BoulezPierre BoulezBoulez, Pierre
Published in 1979, the Cerha completion premiered on 24 February the same year at the Opera Garnier and was conducted by Pierre Boulez, with Stratas singing the lead role; the production (by Patrice Chéreau) was a sensation and the recording won the Gramophone Award for 1979.
His work in the opera house included the Jahrhundertring—the production of Wagner's Ring cycle for the centenary of the Bayreuth Festival—and the world premiere of the three-act version of Alban Berg's Lulu.

Anneliese Rothenberger

In 1967 the Metropolitan Opera presented the Hamburg State Opera production with Ludwig conducting, Toni Blankenheim (Schön), Anneliese Rothenberger (Lulu), Kerstin Meyer (Geschwitz), Gerhard Unger (Alwa), Kim Borg (Schigolch) and Maria von Ilosvay (Theatre dresser).
In 1947, Günther Rennert offered her a job at the Hamburg Opera House, where she sang in Rennert's now famous production of Alban Berg's Lulu twenty years later, a role she would also perform at the Munich Opera Festival, under the direction of Christoph von Dohnányi.

Elaine Bonazzi

In its two-act form plus sketches of the third act, Lulu made its American debut at the Santa Fe Opera in New Mexico during the 1963 season, with the American soprano Joan Carroll in the title role, together with Donald Gramm (Dr Schön), Elaine Bonazzi (Geschwitz), and George Shirley (Alwa) with Robert Craft conducting The Opera's general director, John Crosby, attempted to negotiate for Santa Fe to stage the American premiere of the full three-act opera, but was not successful.
She returned frequently to the SFO during her career, portraying such roles as Baba the Turk in The Rake's Progress, Countess Geschwitz in Lulu, Herodias in Salome, La chatte in L'enfant et les sortilèges, Marcellina in The Marriage of Figaro, Mark Smeaton in Gaetano Donizetti's Anna Bolena, The Mother in Mavra, the old woman in Yerma, Prince Orlofsky in Die Fledermaus, Saint Catherine in Jeanne d'Arc au bûcher, Tisbe in La Cenerentola, Zita in Gianni Schicchi, and the title roles in Carmen and Regina.

Pandora's Box (play)

Pandora's BoxDie Büchse der PandoraPandora's Box'' (play)
The German-language libretto was adapted by Berg himself from Frank Wedekind's two Lulu plays, Erdgeist (Earth Spirit, 1895) and Die Büchse der Pandora (Pandora's Box, 1904).
Both plays together also formed the basis for the opera Lulu by Alban Berg in 1935 (premiered posthumously in 1937).

Theodor W. Adorno

AdornoTheodor AdornoTheodor W. Adorno
Theodor W. Adorno wrote "The opera Lulu is one of those works that reveals the extent of its quality the longer and more deeply one immerses oneself in it."
To the end of his life, Adorno never abandoned the hope of completing Berg's unfinished Lulu.

Zurich Opera

Zurich OperaOper ZürichZürcher Oper
The opera was first performed by the Zürich Opera in an incomplete form on 2 June 1937.
Zurich Opera House has been the setting for numerous world premières, such as Alban Berg’s Lulu, Paul Hindemith’s Mathis der Maler, Arnold Schönberg’s Moses und Aron, and Rudolf Kelterborn's Der Kirschgarten.

Atonality

atonalatonalityatonal music
A few days later, on 7 December, Goebbels made a speech equating atonality with "the Jewish intellectual infection," while the January 1935 issue of Die Musik suggested that any reviewer who had written anything favourable about the suite should be dismissed.
This period included Berg's Lulu and Lyric Suite, Schoenberg's Piano Concerto, his oratorio Die Jakobsleiter and numerous smaller pieces, as well as his last two string quartets.

Palindrome

palindromepalindromicpalindromes
Like the music for this sequence (and the opera as a whole), the film has a palindromic structure.
The interlude from Alban Berg's opera Lulu is a palindrome, as are sections and pieces, in arch form, by many other composers, including James Tenney, and most famously Béla Bartók.

Erich Kleiber

KleiberErich KleiberE. Kleiber
Wozzeck's success was short lived as theatre after theatre succumbed to political pressure and refused to produce it, Erich Kleiber's 30 November 1932 production being the last, while sets and scenery were systematically destroyed.
When Berg's second opera Lulu was branded Entartete Musik (degenerate music) by the Nazi Party, Kleiber, who was not Jewish and therefore could have continued his career under the Nazi regime, resigned from his post at the Berlin State Opera in protest and under the pressure of the regime (1934).

Christine Schäfer

Celebrated Lulus have included Evelyn Lear, Teresa Stratas, Nancy Shade, Karan Armstrong, Julia Migenes, Barbara Hannigan, and Christine Schäfer.
In 1995, she performed to great acclaim during the Salzburger Festspiele as Lulu in Alban Berg's opera of that name, a part she would later sing at The Met and at Glyndebourne.

Alban Berg

Alban BergBergBerg, Alban
Lulu (composed from 1929 to 1935, premièred incomplete in 1937 and complete in 1979) is an opera in three acts by Alban Berg.
Berg made a start on his second opera, the three-act Lulu, in 1928 but interrupted the work in 1929 for the concert aria Der Wein which he completed that summer.

Berlin State Opera

StaatsoperBerlinBerlin Court Opera
Subsequently Erich Kleiber performed the piece at the Berlin State Opera on 30 November, and despite an enthusiastic reception by some sections of the audience, the subsequent condemnation by the authorities prompted Kleiber's resignation four days later and subsequent departure from Germany.
However, in 1934, when symphonic pieces from Alban Berg's Lulu were performed by Kleiber, the National Socialists provoked a scandal and the conductor was forced into exile.

Pierrot

pierrotPierrot clownPjerrot
He lifts the curtain, and calls for the snake to be brought on. A stage hand carries out Lulu (Lulu motif) dressed as Pierrot, while the animal tamer describes her in biblical terms as the source of evil, fated to murder, Sie ward geschaffen, Unheil anzustiften ... Zu morden – ohne dass es einer spürt. (She was created, evil to instigate ... to murder – without leaving any clues), and orders her off, while inviting the audience to see what will unfold.
In Germany, Frank Wedekind introduced the femme-fatale of his first "Lulu" play, Earth Spirit (1895), in a Pierrot costume; and when the Austrian composer Alban Berg drew upon the play for his opera Lulu (unfinished; first perf.

Edward Clark (conductor)

Edward Clark
(The last two of these passages comprise the fourth and fifth movements of the Lulu Suite which Berg compiled for concert performance.) The rest of the work remained in short score with indications of instrumentation for much of it. Berg was able to hear the Symphonic Pieces in a BBC radio broadcast from the Queen's Hall, London, on 20 March 1935, conducted by Sir Adrian Boult and produced by Edward Clark.
Clark nevertheless made sure his major works received performances in England: the Lyric Suite and Chamber Concerto (21 April 1933); the Wozzeck fragments (13 May 1932), and complete in concert performance (14 March 1934); Der Wein; the Symphonic Pieces from Lulu (20 March 1935; this was the first time Berg had ever heard this music (by radio broadcast); he was not to hear a live performance of it until 11 December in Vienna, a fortnight before his death); and, posthumously, the Violin Concerto.

Katherine Ciesinski

On 28 July 1979, nearly forty-four years after Berg's death, Lulu was finally performed in its entirety in the USA at Santa Fe with Shade (Lulu), William Dooley (Dr Schön), Katherine Ciesinski (Geschwitz) and Barry Busse (Alwa).
She performed Countess Geschwitz in the American premiere of the completed three-act version of Lulu at Santa Fe Opera.

Barbara Hannigan

Celebrated Lulus have included Evelyn Lear, Teresa Stratas, Nancy Shade, Karan Armstrong, Julia Migenes, Barbara Hannigan, and Christine Schäfer.
Hannigan received critical acclaim for her performance in Alban Berg's Lulu, which included dancing on pointe.

Earth Spirit (play)

Earth SpiritErdgeistLulu
The German-language libretto was adapted by Berg himself from Frank Wedekind's two Lulu plays, Erdgeist (Earth Spirit, 1895) and Die Büchse der Pandora (Pandora's Box, 1904).
Together with Pandora's Box, Wedekind's play formed the basis for the silent film Pandora's Box (1929) starring Louise Brooks and the opera Lulu by Alban Berg (1935, premiered posthumously in 1937).

Nino Sanzogno

Sanzogno
Following the Zürich premiere, the opera was seen at La Fenice on 4 September 1949 during the Venice Biennale, conducted by Sanzogno.
A specialist of contemporary works, he conducted at La Scala the premieres of Milhaud's David, Poulenc's Dialogues des Carmélites, Walton's Troilus and Cressida, Shostakovich's Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk, Berg's Lulu, Britten's A Midsummer Night's Dream, Prokofiev's The Fiery Angel, while abroad, notably in Britain, he introduced several works by Italian composers such as Malipiero, Dallapiccola and Pizzetti.