Lulu (opera)

Luluopera of the same nameLulu'' (opera)opera
Lulu (composed from 1929 to 1935, premièred incomplete in 1937 and complete in 1979) is an opera in three acts by Alban Berg.wikipedia
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Friedrich Cerha

CerhaCerha, Friedrich
Since its publication in 1979, however, the version including Friedrich Cerha's orchestration of the act 3 sketches has become standard.
Apart from his compositions, Cerha widely earned a reputation as an interpreter of the works of Alban Berg, Arnold Schoenberg and Anton Webern; his affinity for the works of the second Viennese school culminated in the completion of Alban Berg's opera Lulu by finishing the instrumentation of the 3rd act and filling the gaps in the score (premiered by Pierre Boulez in Paris, 1979).

Violin Concerto (Berg)

Violin ConcertoAlban Berg's Violin ConcertoBerg
The violin concerto was completed swiftly, between April and August of that year but the time he spent on that meant he was unable to complete the opera before his sudden death on 24 December.
When he first received the commission, Berg was working on his opera Lulu, and he did not begin work on the concerto for some months.

Joan Carroll (soprano)

Joan Carroll
In its two-act form plus sketches of the third act, Lulu made its American debut at the Santa Fe Opera in New Mexico during the 1963 season, with the American soprano Joan Carroll in the title role, together with Donald Gramm (Dr Schön), Elaine Bonazzi (Geschwitz), and George Shirley (Alwa) with Robert Craft conducting The Opera's general director, John Crosby, attempted to negotiate for Santa Fe to stage the American premiere of the full three-act opera, but was not successful.
Joan Carroll (born 27 July 1932) is an American operatic coloratura soprano who appeared in the title role of Alban Berg's Lulu at the work's US premiere at the Santa Fe Opera in 1963, and often in opera houses in Europe.

Pandora's Box (play)

Pandora's BoxDie Büchse der PandoraPandora's Box'' (play)
The German-language libretto was adapted by Berg himself from Frank Wedekind's two Lulu plays, Erdgeist (Earth Spirit, 1895) and Die Büchse der Pandora (Pandora's Box, 1904).
Both plays together also formed the basis for the opera Lulu by Alban Berg in 1935 (premiered posthumously in 1937).

Donald Gramm

In its two-act form plus sketches of the third act, Lulu made its American debut at the Santa Fe Opera in New Mexico during the 1963 season, with the American soprano Joan Carroll in the title role, together with Donald Gramm (Dr Schön), Elaine Bonazzi (Geschwitz), and George Shirley (Alwa) with Robert Craft conducting The Opera's general director, John Crosby, attempted to negotiate for Santa Fe to stage the American premiere of the full three-act opera, but was not successful.
Among the most notable of his many operatic roles were the title role in Verdi's Falstaff, Leporello in Mozart's Don Giovanni, and Dr. Schön and Jack the Ripper in Berg's Lulu.

Anja Silja

The last recording made of the original two-act version—Christoph von Dohnányi conducting the Vienna Philharmonic, with Anja Silja in the title role (Decca/London, recorded 1976 and released 1978)—presented it in this form.
Outside Bayreuth, the soprano appeared in Wieland Wagner's productions of Salome, Tristan und Isolde, Die Walküre and Siegfried (as Brünnhilde), Elektra, Fidelio, Otello, Lulu, Wozzeck (conducted by Pierre Boulez), and other operas.

Teresa Stratas

Stratas
Celebrated Lulus have included Evelyn Lear, Teresa Stratas, Nancy Shade, Karan Armstrong, Julia Migenes, Barbara Hannigan, and Christine Schäfer.
She is especially well known for her award-winning recording of Alban Berg's Lulu.

Theodor W. Adorno

AdornoTheodor AdornoAdorno, Theodor W.
Theodor W. Adorno wrote "The opera Lulu is one of those works that reveals the extent of its quality the longer and more deeply one immerses oneself in it."
To the end of his life, Adorno never abandoned the hope of completing Berg's unfinished Lulu.

Alban Berg

BergBerg, AlbanAlban-Berg-Foundation
Lulu (composed from 1929 to 1935, premièred incomplete in 1937 and complete in 1979) is an opera in three acts by Alban Berg.
Berg made a start on his second opera, the three-act Lulu, in 1928 but interrupted the work in 1929 for the concert aria Der Wein which he completed that summer.

Earth Spirit (play)

Earth SpiritErdgeistLulu
The German-language libretto was adapted by Berg himself from Frank Wedekind's two Lulu plays, Erdgeist (Earth Spirit, 1895) and Die Büchse der Pandora (Pandora's Box, 1904).
Together with Pandora's Box, Wedekind's play formed the basis for the silent film Pandora's Box (1929) starring Louise Brooks and the opera Lulu by Alban Berg (1935, premiered posthumously in 1937).

Erich Kleiber

KleiberE. Kleiber
Wozzeck's success was short lived as theatre after theatre succumbed to political pressure and refused to produce it, Erich Kleiber's 30 November 1932 production being the last, while sets and scenery were systematically destroyed.
When Berg's second opera Lulu was branded Entartete Musik (degenerate music) by the Nazi Party, Kleiber, who was not Jewish and therefore could have continued his career under the Nazi regime, resigned from his post at the Berlin State Opera in protest and under the pressure of the regime (1934).

Atonality

atonalatonal musicatonalism
A few days later, on 7 December, Goebbels made a speech equating atonality with "the Jewish intellectual infection," while the January 1935 issue of Die Musik suggested that any reviewer who had written anything favourable about the suite should be dismissed.
This period included Berg's Lulu and Lyric Suite, Schoenberg's Piano Concerto, his oratorio Die Jakobsleiter and numerous smaller pieces, as well as his last two string quartets.

Elaine Bonazzi

In its two-act form plus sketches of the third act, Lulu made its American debut at the Santa Fe Opera in New Mexico during the 1963 season, with the American soprano Joan Carroll in the title role, together with Donald Gramm (Dr Schön), Elaine Bonazzi (Geschwitz), and George Shirley (Alwa) with Robert Craft conducting The Opera's general director, John Crosby, attempted to negotiate for Santa Fe to stage the American premiere of the full three-act opera, but was not successful.
She returned frequently to the SFO during her career, portraying such roles as Baba the Turk in The Rake's Progress, Countess Geschwitz in Lulu, Herodias in Salome, La chatte in L'enfant et les sortilèges, Marcellina in The Marriage of Figaro, Mark Smeaton in Gaetano Donizetti's Anna Bolena, The Mother in Mavra, the old woman in Yerma, Prince Orlofsky in Die Fledermaus, Saint Catherine in Jeanne d'Arc au bûcher, Tisbe in La Cenerentola, Zita in Gianni Schicchi, and the title roles in Carmen and Regina.

Anneliese Rothenberger

In 1967 the Metropolitan Opera presented the Hamburg State Opera production with Ludwig conducting, Toni Blankenheim (Schön), Anneliese Rothenberger (Lulu), Kerstin Meyer (Geschwitz), Gerhard Unger (Alwa), Kim Borg (Schigolch) and Maria von Ilosvay (Theatre dresser).
In 1947, Günther Rennert offered her a job at the Hamburg Opera House, where she sang in Rennert's now famous production of Alban Berg's Lulu twenty years later, a role she would also perform at the Munich Opera Festival, under the direction of Christoph von Dohnányi.

Berlin State Opera

StaatsoperStaatsoper Unter den LindenBerlin
Subsequently Erich Kleiber performed the piece at the Berlin State Opera on 30 November, and despite an enthusiastic reception by some sections of the audience, the subsequent condemnation by the authorities prompted Kleiber's resignation four days later and subsequent departure from Germany.
However, in 1934, when symphonic pieces from Alban Berg's Lulu were performed by Kleiber, the National Socialists provoked a scandal and the conductor was forced into exile.

Patrice Chéreau

ChéreauPatrice Chereau
Published in 1979, the Cerha completion premiered on 24 February the same year at the Opera Garnier and was conducted by Pierre Boulez, with Stratas singing the lead role; the production (by Patrice Chéreau) was a sensation and the recording won the Gramophone Award for 1979.
He accepted selected opera productions, such as: the first performance of the three-act version of Alban Berg's Lulu, completed by Friedrich Cerha, at the Paris Opera in 1979; Berg's Wozzeck at the Staatsoper Berlin in 1994; Wagner's Tristan und Isolde at La Scala in 2007; Janáček's From the House of the Dead, shown at several festivals and the Metropolitan Opera; and, as his last staging, Elektra by Richard Strauss, first performed at the Aix-en-Provence Festival in July 2013.

Pierre Boulez

BoulezBoulez, PierrePierre
Published in 1979, the Cerha completion premiered on 24 February the same year at the Opera Garnier and was conducted by Pierre Boulez, with Stratas singing the lead role; the production (by Patrice Chéreau) was a sensation and the recording won the Gramophone Award for 1979.
His work in the opera house included the Jahrhundertring—the production of Wagner's Ring cycle for the centenary of the Bayreuth Festival—and the world premiere of the three-act version of Alban Berg's Lulu.

Edward Clark (conductor)

Edward Clark
(The last two of these passages comprise the fourth and fifth movements of the Lulu Suite which Berg compiled for concert performance.) The rest of the work remained in short score with indications of instrumentation for much of it. Berg was able to hear the Symphonic Pieces in a BBC radio broadcast from the Queen's Hall, London, on 20 March 1935, conducted by Sir Adrian Boult and produced by Edward Clark.
Clark nevertheless made sure his major works received performances in England: the Lyric Suite and Chamber Concerto (21 April 1933); the Wozzeck fragments (13 May 1932), and complete in concert performance (14 March 1934); Der Wein; the Symphonic Pieces from Lulu (20 March 1935; this was the first time Berg had ever heard this music (by radio broadcast); he was not to hear a live performance of it until 11 December in Vienna, a fortnight before his death); and, posthumously, the Violin Concerto.

Opera

opera singeroperasoperatic
Lulu (composed from 1929 to 1935, premièred incomplete in 1937 and complete in 1979) is an opera in three acts by Alban Berg.
The two operas of Schoenberg's pupil Alban Berg, Wozzeck (1925) and Lulu (incomplete at his death in 1935) share many of the same characteristics as described above, though Berg combined his highly personal interpretation of Schoenberg's twelve-tone technique with melodic passages of a more traditionally tonal nature (quite Mahlerian in character) which perhaps partially explains why his operas have remained in standard repertory, despite their controversial music and plots.

Palindrome

palindromicpalindromessemordnilap
Like the music for this sequence (and the opera as a whole), the film has a palindromic structure.
The interlude from Alban Berg's opera Lulu is a palindrome, as are sections and pieces, in arch form, by many other composers, including James Tenney, and most famously Béla Bartók.

Frank Wedekind

WedekindLulu
The German-language libretto was adapted by Berg himself from Frank Wedekind's two Lulu plays, Erdgeist (Earth Spirit, 1895) and Die Büchse der Pandora (Pandora's Box, 1904).
The "Lulu" plays formed the basis for G. W. Pabst's acclaimed silent film Pandora's Box (1929), starring Louise Brooks as Lulu and also Alban Berg's opera Lulu (1937), which is considered to be one of the masterpieces of twentieth-century opera.

Nino Sanzogno

Sanzogno
Following the Zürich premiere, the opera was seen at La Fenice on 4 September 1949 during the Venice Biennale, conducted by Sanzogno.
A specialist of contemporary works, he conducted at La Scala the premieres of Milhaud's David, Poulenc's Dialogues des Carmélites, Walton's Troilus and Cressida, Shostakovich's Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk, Berg's Lulu, Britten's A Midsummer Night's Dream, Prokofiev's The Fiery Angel, while abroad, notably in Britain, he introduced several works by Italian composers such as Malipiero, Dallapiccola and Pizzetti.

Carla Spletter

The German premiere was at the Grillo-Theater in Essen on 7 March 1953 with Carla Spletter in the title role, and the Netherlands premiere on July 7 of that year at the Stadsschouwburg in Amsterdam as part of the Holland Festival, both with Die Bühnen der Stadt Essen conducted by Gustav König and broadcast to the UK on the BBC on 10 August.
Her last appearance was that of the title role in Alban Berg's opera Lulu for the German (Grillo-Theater, Essen) and Dutch (Stadsschouwburg, Amsterdam) premieres of that work in March and July 1953 respectively, under the baton of Gustav König.

Sheet music

scoremusical scorescores
(The last two of these passages comprise the fourth and fifth movements of the Lulu Suite which Berg compiled for concert performance.) The rest of the work remained in short score with indications of instrumentation for much of it. Berg was able to hear the Symphonic Pieces in a BBC radio broadcast from the Queen's Hall, London, on 20 March 1935, conducted by Sir Adrian Boult and produced by Edward Clark.
Because of their preliminary nature, short scores are the principal reference point for those composers wishing to attempt a 'completion' of another's unfinished work (e.g. Movements 2 through 5 of Gustav Mahler's 10th Symphony or the third Act of Alban Berg's opera Lulu).

Helga Pilarczyk

Pilarczyk
This was followed by a production at Hamburg in 1957 with Helga Pilarczyk in a Günther Rennert production, conducted by Leopold Ludwig which was also seen at the Paris Opera in 1960 and La Scala in 1963, and Sadler's Wells 1962.
Pilarczyk became a specialist in works of the twentieth century, including works by Richard Strauss, Salome and Die Frau ohne Schatten (as the Dyer's Wife), Prokofiev's The Fiery Angel, Luigi Dallapiccola's Il prigioniero, Stravinsky's Oedipus rex and The Flood, Alban Berg's Wozzeck and Lulu, and Schoenberg's Erwartung and Von heute auf morgen.