Luna 1

Lunik 1Mechta
Luna 1, also known as Mechta (Мечта, lit.: Dream), E-1 No.4 and First Lunar Rover, was the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Earth's Moon, and the first spacecraft to be placed in heliocentric orbit.wikipedia
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Luna programme

Luna programLunaLunik
Intended as an impactor, Luna 1 was launched as part of the Soviet Luna programme in 1959, however due to an incorrectly timed upper stage burn during its launch, it missed the Moon, in the process becoming the first spacecraft to leave geocentric orbit.
Luna 1 (January 1959) missed its intended impact with the Moon and became the first spacecraft to achieve escape velocity.

Spacecraft

spaceshipspaceshipsspace ship
Luna 1, also known as Mechta (Мечта, lit.: Dream), E-1 No.4 and First Lunar Rover, was the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Earth's Moon, and the first spacecraft to be placed in heliocentric orbit.

Heliocentric orbit

Heliocentrictrans-Mars injectionsolar orbit
Luna 1, also known as Mechta (Мечта, lit.: Dream), E-1 No.4 and First Lunar Rover, was the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Earth's Moon, and the first spacecraft to be placed in heliocentric orbit.
The first spacecraft to be put in a heliocentric orbit was Luna 1 in 1959.

Moon

lunarthe MoonLuna
Luna 1, also known as Mechta (Мечта, lit.: Dream), E-1 No.4 and First Lunar Rover, was the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Earth's Moon, and the first spacecraft to be placed in heliocentric orbit.
Spacecraft from the Soviet Union's Luna program were the first to accomplish a number of goals: following three unnamed, failed missions in 1958, the first human-made object to escape Earth's gravity and pass near the Moon was Luna 1; the first human-made object to impact the lunar surface was Luna 2, and the first photographs of the normally occluded far side of the Moon were made by Luna 3, all in 1959.

Baikonur Cosmodrome

BaikonurBaykonur CosmodromeBaikonur space center
Luna 1 was launched at 16:41 GMT (22:41 local time) on 2 January 1959 from Site 1/5 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome by a Luna 8K72 rocket.
Many historic flights lifted off from Baikonur: the first operational ICBM; the first man-made satellite, Sputnik 1, on 4 October 1957; the first spacecraft to travel close to the Moon, Luna 1, on 2 January 1959; the first manned and orbital flight by Yuri Gagarin on 12 April 1961; and the flight of the first woman in space, Valentina Tereshkova, in 1963.

Van Allen radiation belt

Van Allen beltsradiation beltVan Allen belt
While traveling through the outer Van Allen radiation belt, the spacecraft's scintillator made observations indicating that a small number of high-energy particles exist in the outer belt.
The trapped radiation was first mapped by Explorer 4, Pioneer 3 and Luna 1.

Luna 2

LunikLunik 2first man-made object hitting the Moon's surface
Luna 2, the second spacecraft of the Ye-1A series, successfully completed the mission on September 13, 1959.
Luna 1 and the three spacecraft of Luna programme before it were part of the Ye-1 series of spacecraft with a mass of 156 kg.

Solar wind

solar windslosessolar
The first-ever direct observations and measurements of solar wind, a strong flow of ionized plasma emanating from the Sun and streaming through interplanetary space, were performed.
In January 1959, the Soviet spacecraft Luna 1 first directly observed the solar wind and measured its strength, using hemispherical ion traps.

Pioneer 4

Pioneer
* Pioneer 4 – a similar NASA mission launched 3 March 1959, two months after Luna 1.
After the Soviet Luna 1 probe conducted the first successful flyby of the Moon on January 3, 1959, the pressure felt by the US to succeed with a lunar mission was enormous, especially since American mission failures were entirely public while the Soviet failures were kept a secret.

Outer space

spaceinterstellar spaceintergalactic medium
The measurements obtained during this mission provided new data on the Earth's radiation belt and outer space.
The first spacecraft to reach escape velocity was the Soviet Luna 1, which performed a fly-by of the Moon in 1959.

Luna (rocket)

LunaLuna 8K72
Luna 1 was launched at 16:41 GMT (22:41 local time) on 2 January 1959 from Site 1/5 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome by a Luna 8K72 rocket.
The first probe launched by a Luna 8K72 to reach orbit was Luna 1, launched 2 January 1959, which was intended as a lunar impactor mission.

Luna E-1A No.1

Literal translation

lit.Litliterally
Luna 1, also known as Mechta (Мечта, lit.: Dream), E-1 No.4 and First Lunar Rover, was the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Earth's Moon, and the first spacecraft to be placed in heliocentric orbit.

Soviet Union

SovietUSSRSoviets
Intended as an impactor, Luna 1 was launched as part of the Soviet Luna programme in 1959, however due to an incorrectly timed upper stage burn during its launch, it missed the Moon, in the process becoming the first spacecraft to leave geocentric orbit.

Geocentric orbit

GeocentricEarth orbitEarth-orbit
Intended as an impactor, Luna 1 was launched as part of the Soviet Luna programme in 1959, however due to an incorrectly timed upper stage burn during its launch, it missed the Moon, in the process becoming the first spacecraft to leave geocentric orbit.

Alexander Kazantsev

Aleksandr Kazantsev
Pravda writer Alexander Kazantsev called it Mechta (Мечта, meaning 'dream').

Radio-frequency engineering

radio electronicsRF circuitRF engineering
The spacecraft also contained radio equipment including a tracking transmitter and telemetry system.

Tracking transmitter

tracking beacon
The spacecraft also contained radio equipment including a tracking transmitter and telemetry system.

Telemetry

radio telemetryradio-collaredtelemetric
The spacecraft also contained radio equipment including a tracking transmitter and telemetry system.

State Emblem of the Soviet Union

coat of arms of the Soviet UnionState EmblemSoviet coat of arms
Luna 1 was designed to impact the Moon, delivering two metallic pennants with the Soviet coat of arms that were included into its payload package.

Magnetometer

digital compassDigitalmagnetometry
The flux-gate magnetometer was triaxial and could measure ± 3000 gammas.

Geiger counter

Geiger countersGeiger–Müller counterGeiger-Muller counter
The scientific payload also included two gas-discharge Geiger counters, a sodium-iodide scintillation counter, and a Cherenkov detector.

Scintillation counter

scintillation countersscintillatorscintillation
The scientific payload also included two gas-discharge Geiger counters, a sodium-iodide scintillation counter, and a Cherenkov detector.