A report on Lung and Vagus nerve

Diagram of the human lungs with the respiratory tract visible, and different colours for each lobe
Plan of the upper portions of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves.
H&E stained fibers of the vagus nerve (bottom right) innervate the sinoatrial node tissue (middle left)
Cross-sectional detail of the lung
Inferior view of the human brain, with the cranial nerves labeled.
Thick elastic fibres from the visceral pleura (outer lining) of lung
Section of the neck at about the level of the sixth cervical vertebra
TEM image of collagen fibres in a cross sectional slice of mammalian lung tissue.
Transverse section of thorax, showing relations of pulmonary artery
A lobule of the lung enclosed in septa and supplied by a terminal bronchiole that branches into the respiratory bronchioles. Each respiratory bronchiole supplies the alveoli held in each acinus accompanied by a pulmonary artery branch.
The arch of the aorta, and its branches
Alveoli and their capillary networks.
Dura mater and its processes exposed by removing part of the right half of the skull, and the brain
3D Medical illustration showing different terminating ends of bronchioles.
The tracheobronchial lymph glands
The lungs as main part of respiratory tract
Section of the medulla oblongata at about the middle of the olive
3D rendering of a high-resolution CT scan of the thorax. The anterior thoracic wall, the airways and the pulmonary vessels anterior to the root of the lung have been digitally removed in order to visualize the different levels of the pulmonary circulation.
Hind- and mid-brains; postero-lateral view
Lungs during development, showing the early branching of the primitive bronchial buds
Upper part of medulla spinalis and hind- and mid-brains; posterior aspect, exposed in situ
The effect of the respiratory muscles in expanding the rib cage.
The right sympathetic chain and its connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses
Tissue death of the lung due to a pulmonary embolism
The celiac ganglia with the sympathetic plexuses of the abdominal viscera radiating from the ganglia
3D still image of constricted airways as in bronchial asthma.
The position and relation of the esophagus in the cervical region and in the posterior mediastinum, seen from behind
Lung tissue affected by emphysema using H&E stain.
The thyroid gland and its relations
On inhalation, air travels to air sacs near the back of a bird. The air then passes through the lungs to air sacs near the front of the bird, from where the air is exhaled.
The thymus of a full-term fetus, exposed in situ
The cross-current respiratory gas exchanger in the lungs of birds. Air is forced from the air sacs unidirectionally (from left to right in the diagram) through the parabronchi. The pulmonary capillaries surround the parabronchi in the manner shown (blood flowing from below the parabronchus to above it in the diagram). Blood or air with a high oxygen content is shown in red; oxygen-poor air or blood is shown in various shades of purple-blue.
Deep dissection of vagus nerve
The axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) retains its larval form with gills into adulthood
Vagus nerve – dissection
Book lungs of spider (shown in pink)
thumb|Chest CT (axial lung window)
thumb|Chest CT (coronal lung window)

The vagus nerve, also known as the tenth cranial nerve, cranial nerve X, or simply CN X, is a cranial nerve that interfaces with the parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.

- Vagus nerve

Input from the parasympathetic nervous system occurs via the vagus nerve.

- Lung
Diagram of the human lungs with the respiratory tract visible, and different colours for each lobe

7 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Autonomic nervous system innervation, showing the parasympathetic (craniosacral) systems in blue.

Parasympathetic nervous system

2 links

One of the three divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the others being the sympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system.

One of the three divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the others being the sympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system.

Autonomic nervous system innervation, showing the parasympathetic (craniosacral) systems in blue.

Specific nerves include several cranial nerves, specifically the oculomotor nerve, facial nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, and vagus nerve.

2) The vagus nerve does not participate in these cranial ganglia as most of its parasympathetic fibers are destined for a broad array of ganglia on or near thoracic viscera (esophagus, trachea, heart, lungs) and abdominal viscera (stomach, pancreas, liver, kidneys, small intestine, and about half of the large intestine). The vagus innervation ends at the junction between the midgut and hindgut, just before the splenic flexure of the transverse colon.

Heart

1 links

Muscular organ in most animals.

Muscular organ in most animals.

Human heart during an autopsy
Computer-generated animation of a beating human heart
The human heart is in the middle of the thorax, with its apex pointing to the left.
Heart being dissected showing right and left ventricles, from above
Frontal section showing papillary muscles attached to the tricuspid valve on the right and to the mitral valve on the left via chordae tendineae.
Layers of the heart wall, including visceral and parietal pericardium
The swirling pattern of myocardium helps the heart pump effectively
Arterial supply to the heart (red), with other areas labelled (blue).
Autonomic innervation of the heart
Development of the human heart during the first eight weeks (top) and the formation of the heart chambers (bottom). In this figure, the blue and red colors represent blood inflow and outflow (not venous and arterial blood). Initially, all venous blood flows from the tail/atria to the ventricles/head, a very different pattern from that of an adult.
Blood flow through the valves
The cardiac cycle as correlated to the ECG
The x-axis reflects time with a recording of the heart sounds. The y-axis represents pressure.
Transmission of a cardiac action potential through the heart's conduction system
Conduction system of the heart
The prepotential is due to a slow influx of sodium ions until the threshold is reached followed by a rapid depolarization and repolarization. The prepotential accounts for the membrane reaching threshold and initiates the spontaneous depolarization and contraction of the cell; there is no resting potential.
3D echocardiogram showing the mitral valve (right), tricuspid and mitral valves (top left) and aortic valve (top right).
The closure of the heart valves causes the heart sounds.
Cardiac cycle shown against ECG
Heart and its blood vessels, by Leonardo da Vinci, 15th century
Animated heart
Elize Ryd making a heart sign at a concert in 2018
The tube-like heart (green) of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae extends horizontally across the body, interlinked with the diamond-shaped wing muscles (also green) and surrounded by pericardial cells (red). Blue depicts cell nuclei.
Basic arthropod body structure – heart shown in red
The human heart viewed from the front
The human heart viewed from behind
The coronary circulation
The human heart viewed from the front and from behind
Frontal section of the human heart
An anatomical specimen of the heart
Heart illustration with circulatory system
Animated Heart 3d Model Rendered in Computer

The pumped blood carries oxygen and nutrients to the body, while carrying metabolic waste such as carbon dioxide to the lungs.

The heart receives nerve signals from the vagus nerve and from nerves arising from the sympathetic trunk.

Conducting passages

Trachea

1 links

Conducting passages
240px
Lymph nodes of the trachea.
Tracheal diverticulum as seen on axial CT imaging
Tracheal system of dissected cockroach. The largest tracheae run across the width of the body of the cockroach and are horizontal in this image. Scale bar, 2 mm.
The tracheal system branches into progressively smaller tubes, here supplying the crop of the cockroach. Scale bar, 2 mm.
thumb|Cross section of a trachea and esophagus
The sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles lie on top of the upper part of the trachea
The thyroid gland also lies on top of the trachea, and lies below the cricoid cartilage.
Cross-section
Cross-section of the trachea, with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and goblet cells labelled
Magnified cross-section of the cartilage of the trachea.
Trachea
Coronal section of larynx and upper part of trachea
alt=Trachea (mammal) cross-section high resolution|Trachea (mammal) cross-section high resolution
alt=Trachea (mammal) cross-section low resolution|Trachea (mammal) cross-section low resolution

The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the larynx to the bronchi of the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.

To its sides run the carotid arteries and inferior thyroid arteries; and to its sides on its back surface run the recurrent laryngeal nerves in the upper trachea, and the vagus nerves in the lower trachea.

Autonomic nervous system innervation.

Autonomic nervous system

1 links

Division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.

Division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.

Autonomic nervous system innervation.
Autonomic nervous system, showing splanchnic nerves in middle, and the vagus nerve as "X" in blue. The heart and organs below in list to right are regarded as viscera.
Function of the autonomic nervous system
A flow diagram showing the process of stimulation of adrenal medulla that makes it release adrenaline, that further acts on adrenoreceptors, indirectly mediating or mimicking sympathetic activity.

A third subsystem of neurons has been named as non-noradrenergic, non-cholinergic transmitters (because they use nitric oxide as a neurotransmitter) and are integral in autonomic function, in particular in the gut and the lungs.

The parasympathetic division has craniosacral “outflow”, meaning that the neurons begin at the cranial nerves (specifically the oculomotor nerve, facial nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve and vagus nerve) and sacral (S2-S4) spinal cord.

Anatomy of the larynx, anterolateral view

Larynx

1 links

Organ in the top of the neck involved in breathing, producing sound and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.

Organ in the top of the neck involved in breathing, producing sound and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.

Anatomy of the larynx, anterolateral view
Sagittal section of the larynx and upper part of the trachea.
The basic parts of the human larynx.
Vocal cords abducted and adducted
Extrinsic laryngeal muscles
Image of endoscopy
Endoscopic image of an inflamed human larynx
Larynx. Deep dissection. Anterior view.
Larynx. Deep dissection. Posterior view.

The larynx is innervated by branches of the vagus nerve on each side.

During swallowing, elevation of the posterior portion of the tongue levers (inverts) the epiglottis over the glottis' opening to prevent swallowed material from entering the larynx which leads to the lungs, and provides a path for a food or liquid bolus to "slide" into the esophagus; the hyo-laryngeal complex is also pulled upwards to assist this process.

Hering–Breuer reflex

0 links

The Hering–Breuer inflation reflex, named for Josef Breuer and Ewald Hering, is a reflex triggered to prevent the over-inflation of the lung.

Once activated, they send action potentials through large myelinated fibers of the vagus nerve to the inspiratory area in the medulla and apneustic center of the pons.

Schematic of the proximal aorta and its branches. The left subclavian artery is the fifth branch of the aorta and the third branch from the arch of the aorta. The right subclavian artery arises from the brachiocephalic artery and its branches. (Right subclavian is at upper left, and left subclavian is at upper right.)

Subclavian artery

0 links

In human anatomy, the subclavian arteries are paired major arteries of the upper thorax, below the clavicle.

In human anatomy, the subclavian arteries are paired major arteries of the upper thorax, below the clavicle.

Schematic of the proximal aorta and its branches. The left subclavian artery is the fifth branch of the aorta and the third branch from the arch of the aorta. The right subclavian artery arises from the brachiocephalic artery and its branches. (Right subclavian is at upper left, and left subclavian is at upper right.)
Superficial dissection of the right side of the neck, showing the carotid and subclavian arteries. Branch of vertebral artery and thyrocervical trunk is labeled. Internal thoracic artery branches from same segment, but inferiorily, and is therefore not visible.
Side of neck, showing chief surface markings.
Magnetic Resonance Angiography
Right subclavian artery
Brachial plexus and subclavian artery

It is crossed by the internal jugular vein and the vertebral vein, by the vagus nerve and the cardiac branches of the vagus and sympathetic, and by the subclavian loop of the sympathetic trunk which forms a ring around the vessel.

Below and behind the artery is the pleura, which separates it from the apex of the lung.