Lupus nephritis

systemic lupus erythematosus
Lupus nephritis is an inflammation of the kidneys caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease.wikipedia
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Systemic lupus erythematosus

lupusSLEsystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Lupus nephritis is an inflammation of the kidneys caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease.
Acute or chronic renal impairment may develop with lupus nephritis, leading to acute or end-stage kidney failure.

Focal proliferative nephritis

focal glomerulonephritis
Class III disease (focal glomerulonephritis) is indicated by sclerotic lesions involving less than 50% of the glomeruli, which can be segmental or global, and active or chronic, with endocapillary or extracapillary proliferative lesions.
Focal proliferative nephritis is a type of glomerulonephritis seen in 20% to 35% of cases of lupus nephritis, classified as type III.

Acute kidney injury

acute renal failureacute kidney failureuremic poisoning
Hypertension, nephrotic syndrome, and acute kidney injury are very rare at this stage.
AKI can be caused by systemic disease (such as a manifestation of an autoimmune disease, e.g. lupus nephritis), crush injury, contrast agents, some antibiotics, and more.

Kidney

kidneysrenalkidney disorder
Lupus nephritis is an inflammation of the kidneys caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease.

Anti-dsDNA antibodies

Anti-dsDNAAnti ds-DNAanti-double stranded DNA
Clinically, haematuria and proteinuria are present, frequently with nephrotic syndrome, hypertension, hypocomplementemia, elevated anti-dsDNA titres and elevated serum creatinine.
They are highly diagnostic of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and are implicated in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis.

Nephrotic syndrome

a serious kidney disorderGlomerulosclerosisidiopathic nephrotic syndrome
Hypertension, nephrotic syndrome, and acute kidney injury are very rare at this stage.

Glomerulonephritis

C3 glomerulonephritisglomerular nephritisglomerulonephritis, membranoproliferative
It is a type of glomerulonephritis in which the glomeruli become inflamed.

Mycophenolic acid

mycophenolate mofetilmycophenolateCellcept
Drug regimens prescribed for lupus nephritis include mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), intravenous cyclophosphamide with corticosteroids, and the immune suppressant azathioprine with corticosteroids.
Its increasing application in treating lupus nephritis has demonstrated more frequent complete response and less frequent complications compared to cyclophosphamide bolus therapy, a regimen with risk of bone marrow suppression, infertility, and malignancy.

Cyclophosphamide

(C)'''yclophosphamidealdophosphamideCytoxan
Drug regimens prescribed for lupus nephritis include mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), intravenous cyclophosphamide with corticosteroids, and the immune suppressant azathioprine with corticosteroids.
For example, systemic lupus erythematosus with severe lupus nephritis may respond to pulsed cyclophosphamide.

Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis

mesangial proliferative lupus nephritis
Class II disease (mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis) is noted by mesangial hypercellularity and matrix expansion.
It is classified as type II lupus nephritis by the World Health Organization (WHO).

Inflammation

inflammatoryinflammatory responseinflamed
Lupus nephritis is an inflammation of the kidneys caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease.

Autoimmune disease

autoimmune diseasesautoimmune disorderautoimmune
Lupus nephritis is an inflammation of the kidneys caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease.

Glomerulus (kidney)

glomerulusglomeruliglomerular
It is a type of glomerulonephritis in which the glomeruli become inflamed.

Minimal mesangial glomerulonephritis

Class I disease (minimal mesangial glomerulonephritis) in its histology has a normal appearance under a light microscope, but mesangial deposits are visible under an electron microscope.

Histology

histologicalhistologichistologist
Class I disease (minimal mesangial glomerulonephritis) in its histology has a normal appearance under a light microscope, but mesangial deposits are visible under an electron microscope.

Optical microscope

light microscopeoptical microscopycompound microscope
Class I disease (minimal mesangial glomerulonephritis) in its histology has a normal appearance under a light microscope, but mesangial deposits are visible under an electron microscope.

Mesangium

mesangialglomerular mesangiummesangial matrix
Class I disease (minimal mesangial glomerulonephritis) in its histology has a normal appearance under a light microscope, but mesangial deposits are visible under an electron microscope.

Electron microscope

electron microscopyelectron microscopeselectron
Class I disease (minimal mesangial glomerulonephritis) in its histology has a normal appearance under a light microscope, but mesangial deposits are visible under an electron microscope.

Clinical urine tests

urinalysisurine testurine sample
At this stage urinalysis is normal.

Hematuria

blood in the urinehaematuriabloody urine
Microscopic haematuria with or without proteinuria may be seen.

Hypertension

high blood pressurehypertensivearterial hypertension
Hypertension, nephrotic syndrome, and acute kidney injury are very rare at this stage.

Sclerosis (medicine)

sclerosisscleroticsclerotized
Class III disease (focal glomerulonephritis) is indicated by sclerotic lesions involving less than 50% of the glomeruli, which can be segmental or global, and active or chronic, with endocapillary or extracapillary proliferative lesions.

Immunofluorescence

immunofluorescentindirect immunofluorescenceimmunofluorescence microscopy
Immunofluorescence reveals positively for IgG, IgA, IgM, C3, and C1q.

Immunoglobulin G

IgGIgG1IgG4
Immunofluorescence reveals positively for IgG, IgA, IgM, C3, and C1q.

Immunoglobulin A

IgASecretory IgAIgA1
Immunofluorescence reveals positively for IgG, IgA, IgM, C3, and C1q.