Luxembourg

🇱🇺LUXGrand Duchy of LuxembourgLuxemburgLuxembourgishLULuxembourgianGrand DuchyDuchy of LuxembourgGrand Duchy of Luxemburg
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg ; Luxembourg; Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a small landlocked country in western Europe.wikipedia
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Belgium

🇧🇪BelgianBEL
It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south. In 1839, following the turmoil of the Belgian Revolution, the purely French-speaking part of Luxembourg was ceded to Belgium and the Luxembourgish-speaking part (except the Arelerland, the area around Arlon) became what is the present state of Luxembourg. At the time of the Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839, and by the 1839 Treaty establishing full independence, Luxembourg's territory was reduced by more than half, as the predominantly francophone western part of the country was transferred to Belgium.
It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, and the North Sea to the northwest.

Germany

🇩🇪GermanGER
It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south.
It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

France

🇫🇷FrenchFRA
It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south.
It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south.

Landlocked country

landlockedland-lockeddoubly landlocked
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg ; Luxembourg; Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a small landlocked country in western Europe.
Some landlocked countries are quite affluent, such as Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, and Austria, all of which frequently employ neutrality to their political advantage.

German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
Its capital, Luxembourg City, together with Brussels and Strasbourg, is one of the three official capitals of the European Union and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest judicial authority in the EU. Its culture, people, and languages are highly intertwined with its neighbours, making it essentially a mixture of French and German cultures, as evident by the nation's three official languages: French, German, and the national language, Luxembourgish (sometimes considered a dialect of German).
It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland.

Luxembourg in World War II

Luxembourghistory of Luxembourg from 1940 to 1945liberating
The repeated invasions by Germany, especially in World War II, resulted in the country's strong will for mediation between France and Germany and, among other things, led to the foundation of the European Union.
The involvement of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg in World War II began with its invasion by German forces on 10 May 1940 and lasted beyond its liberation by Allied forces in late 1944 and early 1945.

List of European countries by population growth rate

highest population growth rate
In 2016, Luxembourg had a population of 576,249, which makes it one of the least-populous countries in Europe, but by far the one with the highest population growth rate.

Fortress of Luxembourg

fortressLuxembourgCity and Fortress of Luxembourg
Over the centuries, the City and Fortress of Luxembourg, of great strategic importance situated between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg territories, was gradually built up to be one of the most reputed fortifications in Europe.
The Fortress of Luxembourg refers to the former fortifications of Luxembourg City, the capital of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, which were mostly dismantled in 1867.

List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita

GDP (PPP) per capitaper capitaGDP per capita
Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest GDP (PPP) per capita.

Seventeen Provinces

NetherlandsLow CountriesDutch province
Since Sigismund had no male heir, the Duchy became part of the Burgundian Circle and then one of the Seventeen Provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands.
They roughly covered the Low Countries, i.e. what is now the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and most of the French departments of Nord (French Flanders and French Hainaut) and Pas-de-Calais (Artois).

Trier

TrèvesAugusta TreverorumEuren
The history of Luxembourg is considered to begin in 963, when count Siegfried I acquired a rocky promontory and its Roman-era fortifications known as Lucilinburhuc, ′little castle′, and the surrounding area from the Imperial Abbey of St. Maximin in nearby Trier.
Trier lies in a valley between low vine-covered hills of red sandstone in the west of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate, near the border with Luxembourg and within the important Moselle wine region.

Burgundian Circle

BurgundianBurgundyImperial Circle
Since Sigismund had no male heir, the Duchy became part of the Burgundian Circle and then one of the Seventeen Provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands.
In addition to the Free County of Burgundy (present-day administrative region of Franche-Comté), the Burgundian Circle roughly covered the Low Countries, i.e., the areas now known as the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg and adjacent parts in the French administrative region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais.

Luxembourg City

Luxembourgcity of LuxembourgLuxemburg
Its capital, Luxembourg City, together with Brussels and Strasbourg, is one of the three official capitals of the European Union and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest judicial authority in the EU. Its culture, people, and languages are highly intertwined with its neighbours, making it essentially a mixture of French and German cultures, as evident by the nation's three official languages: French, German, and the national language, Luxembourgish (sometimes considered a dialect of German).
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg, Luxembourg, Luxemburg), also known as Luxembourg City (Stad Lëtzebuerg or d'Stad, Ville de Luxembourg, Stadt Luxemburg, Luxemburg-Stadt), is the capital city of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (also named "Luxembourg"), and the country's most populous commune.

Arelerland

ArlonLand of Arlon
In 1839, following the turmoil of the Belgian Revolution, the purely French-speaking part of Luxembourg was ceded to Belgium and the Luxembourgish-speaking part (except the Arelerland, the area around Arlon) became what is the present state of Luxembourg.
The area has borders with the Gaume to the west and with the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg to the east.

Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor

Henry VIIEmperor Henry VIIHenry VII of Luxembourg
In 1308, Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg became King of the Germans and Holy Roman Emperor.
During his rule of Luxembourg, he ruled effectively, especially in keeping the peace in local feudal disputes.

Sigfried, Count of the Ardennes

SiegfriedSigfriedSiegfried I
The history of Luxembourg is considered to begin in 963, when count Siegfried I acquired a rocky promontory and its Roman-era fortifications known as Lucilinburhuc, ′little castle′, and the surrounding area from the Imperial Abbey of St. Maximin in nearby Trier.
922 – 28 October 998) was count of the Ardennes and the first person to rule Luxembourg.

House of Bourbon

BourbonBourbonsRoyalist
In the following centuries, Luxembourg's fortress was steadily enlarged and strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, Habsburgs, Hohenzollerns and the French.
Spain and Luxembourg currently have monarchs of the House of Bourbon.

Brussels

Brussels-Capital RegionBrussels, BelgiumBruxelles
Its capital, Luxembourg City, together with Brussels and Strasbourg, is one of the three official capitals of the European Union and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest judicial authority in the EU. Its culture, people, and languages are highly intertwined with its neighbours, making it essentially a mixture of French and German cultures, as evident by the nation's three official languages: French, German, and the national language, Luxembourgish (sometimes considered a dialect of German).
The Treaty of Brussels, which was signed on 17 March 1948 between Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, was a prelude to the establishment of the intergovernmental military alliance which later became the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Luxembourgeois

CFLLuxembourgnational
This resulted in the opening of the German market, the development of Luxembourg's steel industry, and expansion of Luxembourg's railway network from 1855 to 1875, particularly the construction of the Luxembourg-Thionville railway line, with connections from there to the European industrial regions.
The Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Luxembourgeois (Luxembourg National Railway Company, abbreviated CFL) is the national railway company of Luxembourg.

Elizabeth of Görlitz

Elisabeth of GörlitzElisabethconsort
In 1437, the House of Luxembourg suffered a succession crisis, precipitated by the lack of a male heir to assume the throne, which led to the territories being sold by Duchess Elisabeth to Philip the Good of Burgundy.
Elisabeth of Görlitz (November 1390 – 2 August 1451) was a Duchess regnant of Luxemburg from 1411 to 1443.

Luxembourgish passport

Luxembourg
As of 2018, Luxembourgish citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 186 countries and territories, ranking the Luxembourgish passport 5th in the world, tied with Austria, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States.
A Luxembourgish passport is an international travel document issued to nationals of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, and may also serve as proof of Luxembourgish citizenship.

Luxembourg (Belgium)

Luxembourgprovince of LuxembourgLuxembourg Province
At the time of the Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839, and by the 1839 Treaty establishing full independence, Luxembourg's territory was reduced by more than half, as the predominantly francophone western part of the country was transferred to Belgium.
It borders on (clockwise from the east) the country of Luxembourg, France, and the Belgian provinces of Namur and Liège.

List of monarchs of Luxembourg

Grand DukeGrand Duchess of LuxembourgGrand Duke of Luxembourg
The King of the Netherlands remained Head of State as Grand Duke of Luxembourg, maintaining a personal union between the two countries until 1890.
The territory of Luxembourg was ruled successively by counts, dukes and grand dukes.

French language

FrenchfrancophoneFrench-language
Its capital, Luxembourg City, together with Brussels and Strasbourg, is one of the three official capitals of the European Union and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest judicial authority in the EU. Its culture, people, and languages are highly intertwined with its neighbours, making it essentially a mixture of French and German cultures, as evident by the nation's three official languages: French, German, and the national language, Luxembourgish (sometimes considered a dialect of German). At the time of the Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839, and by the 1839 Treaty establishing full independence, Luxembourg's territory was reduced by more than half, as the predominantly francophone western part of the country was transferred to Belgium.
It is spoken as a first language (in descending order of the number of speakers) in France, Canadian provinces of Quebec, Ontario and New Brunswick as well as other Francophone regions, Belgium (Wallonia and the Brussels-Capital Region), western Switzerland (cantons of Bern, Fribourg, Geneva, Jura, Neuchâtel, Vaud, Valais), Monaco, parts of the United States (Louisiana, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont), partly in Luxembourg and in northern Italy (region of Aosta Valley), and by various communities elsewhere.

Metz

DivodurumBishop of MetzDivodurum Mediomatricum
At the time of the Franco-Prussian war in 1870, despite allegations about French use of the Luxembourg railways for passing soldiers from Metz (then part of France) through the Duchy, and for forwarding provisions to Thionville, Luxembourg's neutrality was respected by Germany, and neither France nor Germany invaded the country.
Located near the tripoint along the junction of France, Germany, and Luxembourg, the city forms a central place of the European Greater Region and the SaarLorLux euroregion.