Luxembourg

Text page from the Codex Aureus of Echternach, an important surviving codex, was produced in the Abbey of Echternach in the 11th century.
Charles IV, the 14th-century Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia from the House of Luxembourg
Historic map (undated) of Luxembourg City's fortifications
The three partitions of Luxembourg
Frontier with Alsace-Lorraine from 1871 to 1918
The Grand Ducal Palace in Luxembourg City, the official residence of the grand duke of Luxembourg
The Hall of the Chamber of Deputies, the meeting place of the Luxembourgish national legislature, the Chamber of Deputies, in Luxembourg City
The Court of Justice of the European Union, seated in Luxembourg City
Luxembourgish soldiers on parade during National Day, Grand Duke Day, 23 June
The largest towns are Luxembourg, Esch-sur-Alzette, Dudelange, and Differdange.
Typical Luxembourg countryside near Alscheid
View of the Grund along Alzette river in the historical heart of Luxembourg City
Luxembourg is part of the Schengen Area, the EU single market, and the Eurozone (dark blue).
Graphical depiction of Luxembourg's product exports in 2019
Luxembourg's international airline Luxair is based at Luxembourg Airport, the country's only international airport.
Signs in front of the Centre Drosbach on the Cloche d'or, in the city of Luxembourg
Population density in Luxembourg by communes. The main urban area, Luxembourg City, is located in the south-center of the country
Coin of the former Luxembourg franc in two of the country's three languages: French (obverse, left) and Luxembourgish (reverse, right)
Notre-Dame Cathedral, Luxembourg City
The University of Luxembourg is the only university based in the country.
The University of Luxembourg campus Belval
Edward Steichen, photographer and painter
Charly Gaul won three Grand Tours in his cycling career.
Judd mat Gaardebounen, served with boiled potatoes and Diekirch beer

Landlocked country in Western Europe.

- Luxembourg

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France

Transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans.

Transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans.

One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – approximately 17,000 BC. Lascaux is famous for its "exceptionally detailed depictions of humans and animals".
Vercingetorix surrenders to Caesar during the Battle of Alesia. The Gallic defeat in the Gallic Wars secured the Roman conquest of the country.
The Maison Carrée was a temple of the Gallo-Roman city of Nemausus (present-day Nîmes) and is one of the best-preserved vestiges of the Roman Empire.
Frankish expansion from 481 to 870
With Clovis's conversion to Catholicism in 498, the Frankish monarchy, elective and secular until then, became hereditary and of divine right.
Joan of Arc led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453), which paved the way for the final victory.
Metropolitan France territorial evolution from 985 to 1947
The Château de Chenonceau, nowadays part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site, was built in the early 16th century.
Louis XIV, the "Sun King", was the absolute monarch of France and made France the leading European power.
Ouverture des États généraux à Versailles, 5 mai 1789 by Auguste Couder
The Storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789 was the most emblematic event of the French Revolution.
Le Serment du Jeu de paume by Jacques-Louis David, 1791
Napoleon, Emperor of the French, built a vast empire across Europe. His conquests spread the ideals of the French Revolution across much of the continent, such as popular sovereignty, equality before the law, republicanism and administrative reorganisation while his legal reforms had a major impact worldwide. Nationalism, especially in Germany, emerged in reaction against him.
Animated map of the growth and decline of the French colonial empire
French Poilus posing with their war-torn flag in 1917, during World War I
Charles de Gaulle took an active part in many major events of the 20th century: a hero of World War I, leader of the Free French during World War II, he then became President, where he facilitated decolonisation, maintained France as a major power and overcame the revolt of May 1968.
The May 68 protests, a massive social movement, would ultimately led to many social changes, such as the right to abortion, women empowerment as well as the decriminalisation of homosexuality.
Republican marches were organised across France after the January 2015 attacks perpetrated by Islamist terrorists; they became the largest public rallies in French history.
A relief map of Metropolitan France, showing cities with over 100,000 inhabitants
Mont Blanc, the highest summit in Western Europe, marks the border with Italy.
Geological formations near Roussillon, Vaucluse
Reed bed on the Gironde estuary, the largest estuary in Western Europe
Köppen climate classification map of Metropolitan France
Marine (blue), regional (green) and national (red) parks in France (2019)
The lands making up the French Republic, shown at the same geographic scale
Official logo of the French Republic
The National Assembly is the lower house of the French Parliament.
The basic principles that the French Republic must respect are found in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
88 states and governments are part of La Francophonie, which promotes values of democracy, multilingualism and cultural diversity. France has been a key member of this global organisation since its inception in 1970.
The European Parliament in Strasbourg, near the border with (Germany). France is a founding member of all EU institutions.
Examples of France's military. Clockwise from top left: nuclear aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle; a Dassault Rafale fighter aircraft; French Chasseurs Alpins patrolling the valleys of Kapisa province in Afghanistan; a Leclerc tank
La Défense (as seen from the Eiffel Tower) was in 2017 ranked by Ernst & Young as the leading Central business district in continental Europe, and the fourth in the world.
Composition of the French economy (GDP) in 2016 by expenditure type
Champagne is from the Champagne region in Northeast France.
The Eiffel Tower is the world's most-visited paid monument, an icon of both Paris and France.
The Château de Marqueyssac, featuring a French formal garden, is one of the Remarkable Gardens of France.
Belleville Nuclear Power Plant. France derives most of its electricity from nuclear power, the highest percentage in the world.
A TGV Duplex crossing the Cize–Bolozon viaduct. The train can reach a maximum speed of 360 km/h.
Air France is one of the biggest airlines in the world.
France is in 2020 the biggest national financial contributor to the European Space Agency, which conceived the Ariane rocket family, launched from French Guiana (Ariane 5 pictured).
The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble
Population density in France by arrondissement. The main urban areas are visible, notably the Paris (centre-north), Lille (north), Marseille (southeast) and Lyon (centre-southeast) urban areas.
Notre-Dame de Reims is the Roman Catholic cathedral where the Kings of France were crowned until 1825.
The Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, a teaching hospital in Paris, is one of Europe's largest hospitals.
The École normale supérieure (ENS) in Paris, established in the end of the 18th century, produces more Nobel Prize laureates per capita than any other institution in the world.
Eugène Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People (1830) portrays the July Revolution using the stylistic views of Romanticism. Since Liberty is part of the motto "Liberté, égalité, fraternité", as the French put it, this painting has become the primary symbol of the French Republic.
The Louvre Museum, widely recognised as one of the finest art museums in the world, was in 2019 both the largest and the most-visited museum in the world.
Claude Monet, founder of the Impressionist movement
Le Penseur by Auguste Rodin (1902), Musée Rodin, Paris
Saint Louis's Sainte-Chapelle represents the French impact on religious architecture.
Place de la Bourse in Bordeaux, an example of French baroque architecture
The Capitole de Toulouse hosts Toulouse City Hall.
French literary figures. Clockwise from top left: Molière is the most played author in the Comédie-Française; Victor Hugo is one of the most important French novelist and poet; 19th-century poet, writer and translator Charles Baudelaire; 20th-century philosopher and novelist Jean-Paul Sartre
René Descartes, founder of modern Western philosophy
Claude Debussy
Serge Gainsbourg, one of the world's most influential popular musicians
Daft Punk, pioneers of the French house movement
A Palme d'Or from the Cannes Film Festival, one of the "Big Three" film festivals alongside the Venice Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival
Louis de Funès, often called "France's favourite actor", has played over 130 roles in film and over 100 on stage.
Chanel's headquarters on Place Vendôme, Paris
The Parisian headquarters of Agence France-Presse, one of the world's oldest and leading news agencies
Le Figaro was founded in 1826; many of France's most prominent authors have written in its columns over the decades, and it is still considered a newspaper of record.
Admittance of Germaine Tillion, Geneviève de Gaulle-Anthonioz, Pierre Brossolette and Jean Zay at the Pantheon, a mausoleum for distinguished French people, in 2015
Sculpture of Marianne, a common national personification of the French Republic
French wines are usually made to accompany French cuisine.
Some French cheeses with fruits
Starting in 1903, the Tour de France is the oldest and most prestigious of Grands Tours, and the world's most famous cycling race.
Pierre de Coubertin, father of the modern Olympic Games
Zidane was named the best European footballer of the past 50 years in a 2004 UEFA poll.

France borders Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Monaco, Italy, Andorra, and Spain in Europe, as well as the Netherlands, Suriname, and Brazil in the Americas via its overseas territories in French Guiana and Saint Martin.

Landlocked countries: 42 landlocked (green), 2 doubly landlocked (purple)

Landlocked country

Country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basins.

Country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basins.

Landlocked countries: 42 landlocked (green), 2 doubly landlocked (purple)
Bolivia's loss of its coastline in the War of the Pacific (1879–1884) remains a major political issue

Some landlocked countries in Europe are affluent, such as Andorra, Austria, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, San Marino, Switzerland, and Vatican City, all of which, excluding Luxembourg, a founding member of NATO, frequently employ neutrality in global political issues.

The West Germanic languages

German language

West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family, mainly spoken in Central Europe.

West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family, mainly spoken in Central Europe.

The West Germanic languages
The Germanic languages in contemporary Europe
German language area and major dialectal divisions around 1900.
The widespread popularity of the Bible translated into High German by Martin Luther helped establish modern Standard High German.
Ethnolinguistic map of Austria-Hungary, 1910, with German-speaking areas shown in red.
Map shows Austria and South Tyrol, Italy.
200px
Bilingual German-English sign at a bakery in Namibia, where German is a national language.
Self reported knowledge of German as a foreign language in the EU member states (+Turkey), in per cent of the adult population (+15), 2005
Selfreported knowledge of German within the nations of the European Union
The national and regional standard varieties of German
The Low Franconian dialects
The Central German dialects
The Franconian dialects (Low Franconian, Central- and Rhine Franconian, and High Franconian)
The Upper German and High Franconian (transitional between Central and Upper German)
Volume 1 "German Orthography" of the 25th edition of the Duden dictionary
42nd edition of the Österreichisches Wörterbuch ("Austrian Dictionary")
The Deutsches Wörterbuch (1st vol., 1854) by the Brothers Grimm
Austria's standardized cursive
Germany's standardized cursive
A Russian dictionary from 1931, showing the "German alphabet" – the 3rd and 4th columns of each half are Fraktur and Kurrent respectively, with the footnote explaining ligatures used in Fraktur.

It is also a co-official language of Luxembourg and Belgium, as well as a national language in Namibia.

Grand Duke Henri in 2009

Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg

Grand Duke of Luxembourg.

Grand Duke of Luxembourg.

Grand Duke Henri in 2009
The Grand Duke with his wife and heir apparent
The Grand Duke with his son Félix in New York during 2013 United Nations session
The Grand Duke and Grand Duchess at the wedding of the Crown Princess of Sweden in 2010

Prince Henri was born on 16 April 1955, at the Betzdorf Castle in Luxembourg as the second child and first son of Hereditary Grand Duke Jean of Luxembourg and his wife, Princess Joséphine-Charlotte of Belgium.

Trier

City on the banks of the Moselle in Germany.

City on the banks of the Moselle in Germany.

Augusta Treverorum in the 4th century
Porta Nigra
Scale model of Trier around 1800
Cathedral of Trier
Electoral Palace
Districts of Trier
The Aula Palatina, or Constantine Basilica, built 4th century AD during the reign of Roman emperor Constantine I
Rheinisches Landesmuseum Trier
Uni Trier Campus 1
University of applied sciences, central campus
Moselstadium Trier

It lies in a valley between low vine-covered hills of red sandstone in the west of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate, near the border with Luxembourg and within the important Moselle wine region.

Painting of a Luxembourgish couple from Luxembourg City, by Alexis Grimou
Map of the Luxembourger Diaspora in the World.svg

Luxembourgers

Painting of a Luxembourgish couple from Luxembourg City, by Alexis Grimou
Map of the Luxembourger Diaspora in the World.svg

Luxembourgers (Lëtzebuerger ) are a Germanic ethnic group and nation native to their nation state of Luxembourg, where they make up around half of the population.

Seventeen Provinces

The Seventeen Provinces were the Imperial states of the Habsburg Netherlands in the 16th century.

The Seventeen Provinces were the Imperial states of the Habsburg Netherlands in the 16th century.

Map of the Seventeen Provinces, 1581 secession outlined in red
Map of the Low Countries in 1477
Map of the Seventeen Provinces, 1581 secession outlined in red
The Triumph of Death (c. 1562) by Pieter Brueghel the Elder reflects the increasingly harsh treatment the Seventeen Provinces received in the 16th century
Leo Belgicus map
Seventeen Provinces
County of Artois
Duchy of Brabant
Bishopric of Tournai
County of Flanders
Lordship of Friesland
Lordship of Groningen and of the Ommelanden
Duchy of Guelders
County of Hainaut
County of Holland
Duchy of Limburg
Duchy of Luxembourg
Lordship of Mechelen
County of Namur
Lordship of Overijssel
Prince-Bishopric, later Lordship of Utrecht
County of Zeeland
County of Zutphen

They roughly covered the Low Countries, i.e., what is now the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and most of the French departments of Nord (French Flanders and French Hainaut) and Pas-de-Calais (Artois).

Knowledge of French in the European Union and candidate countries

French language

Romance language of the Indo-European family.

Romance language of the Indo-European family.

Knowledge of French in the European Union and candidate countries
Distribution of native French speakers in 6 countries in 2021
French language spread in the United States. Counties marked in lighter pink are those where 6–12% of the population speaks French at home; medium pink, 12–18%; darker pink, over 18%. French-based creole languages are not included.
Town sign in Standard Arabic and French at the entrance of Rechmaya in Lebanon
A 500-CFP franc (€4.20; US$5.00) banknote, used in French Polynesia, New Caledonia and Wallis and Futuna
Varieties of the French language in the world

It is spoken as a first language (in descending order of the number of speakers) in: France; Canada (especially in the provinces of Quebec, Ontario, and New Brunswick, as well as other Francophone regions); Belgium (Wallonia and the Brussels-Capital Region); western Switzerland (specifically the cantons forming the Romandy region); parts of Luxembourg; parts of the United States (the states of Louisiana, Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont); Monaco; the Aosta Valley region of Italy; and various communities elsewhere.

Belgium

Country in Northwestern Europe.

Country in Northwestern Europe.

Gallia Belgica at the time of Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul in 54 BCE
The Burgundian State of Charles the Bold in the 15th century
Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830, Gustaf Wappers, 1834
Cheering crowds greet British troops entering Brussels, 4 September 1944
Relief map of Belgium
Chart illustrating the federal government construction of Belgium
The Belgian Federal Parliament in Brussels, one of six different governments of the country
Regions:
A proportional representation of Belgium exports, 2019
Steelmaking along the Meuse at Ougrée, near Liège
Port of Zeebrugge
Gerardus Mercator
Population density in Belgium by arrondissement.
Brussels, the capital city and largest metropolitan area of Belgium
Bilingual signs in Brussels
National Basilica of the Sacred Heart in Koekelberg, Brussels
Interior of the Great Synagogue of Brussels
The Great Mosque of Brussels
University Hospital of Antwerp
The Central Library of the KU Leuven University
The Ghent Altarpiece: The Adoration of the Mystic Lamb (interior view), painted 1432 by van Eyck
Jacques Brel
The Gilles of Binche, in costume, wearing wax masks
Moules-frites or mosselen met friet is a representative dish of Belgium.
Eddy Merckx, regarded as one of the greatest cyclists of all time

The country is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, and the North Sea to the northwest.

Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor

Count of Luxembourg, King of Germany (or Rex Romanorum) from 1308 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1312.

Count of Luxembourg, King of Germany (or Rex Romanorum) from 1308 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1312.

Arms of the House of Luxembourg.
Arms of Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor.
The seven prince-electors voting for Henry, Balduineum picture chronicle, 1341
The Coronation of Henry VII by three cardinals.
The Empire under Henry VII,
Tomb of Henry VII, Codex Balduini Trevirensis (ca 1340).
Tomb of Henry VII, August 2012.
Tomb of Henry, Duomo, Pisa

During his rule of Luxembourg, he ruled effectively, especially in keeping the peace in local feudal disputes.