Lynching in the United States

lynchedlynchinglynchingslynchings of African Americanslynch moblynchlynchings of blackshangedlynched in the United Stateslynching of African Americans
Lynching is the practice of murder by a group of people by extrajudicial action.wikipedia
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Lynching

lynchedlynch moblynch
Lynching is the practice of murder by a group of people by extrajudicial action.
In the United States, lynchings of African Americans became frequent in the South during the period after the Reconstruction era into the 20th century.

Southern United States

SouthSouthernAmerican South
Most lynchings were of African-American men in the Southern United States, but women and non-blacks were also lynched, not always in the South.
Some other aspects of the historical and cultural development of the South have been influenced by the institution of slave labor on plantations in the Deep South to an extent seen nowhere else in the United States; the presence of a large proportion of African Americans in the population; support for the doctrine of states' rights, and the legacy of racial tension magnified by the Civil War and Reconstruction Era, as seen in thousands of lynchings (mostly from 1880 to 1930), the segregated system of separate schools and public facilities known as "Jim Crow laws", that lasted until the 1960s, and the widespread use of poll taxes and other methods to frequently deny black people of the right to vote or hold office until the 1960s.

Lynching of Ell Persons

Ell PersonsMemphisEll Parsons
As in the case of Ell Parsons, they were sometimes announced in advance in newspapers and in one instance (Fred Rochelle) with a special train.
Ell Persons was an African-American man who was lynched on 22 May 1917, after he was accused of having raped and decapitated a 15-year-old white girl, Antoinette Rappel, in Memphis, Tennessee, United States.

Ida B. Wells

Ida B. Wells-BarnettIda Bell Wells-BarnettIda Wells-Barnett
According to Ida B. Wells and Tuskegee University, most lynching victims were accused of murder or attempted murder. In 1892, journalist Ida B. Wells-Barnett was shocked when three friends in Memphis, Tennessee, were lynched.
In the 1890s, Wells documented lynching in the United States through her indictment called "Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in all its Phases," investigating frequent claims of whites that lynchings were reserved for black criminals only.

The National Memorial for Peace and Justice

National Memorial for Peace and JusticeNational Memorial to Peace and Justice
On April 26, 2018, in Montgomery, Alabama, The National Memorial for Peace and Justice opened.
The National Memorial for Peace and Justice, informally known as the National Lynching Memorial, is a national memorial to commemorate the victims of lynching in the United States.

Nadir of American race relations

nadir of race relations1896a regression in race relations
(See Nadir of American race relations.) During this period that spanned the late 19th and early 20th centuries, lynchings reached a peak in the South.
Anti-black violence, lynchings, segregation, legal racial discrimination, and expressions of white supremacy increased.

Equal Justice Initiative

According to the Equal Justice Initiative, 4,084 African-Americans were lynched between 1877 and 1950 in the South.
On April 26, 2018, the EJI opened two new venues in Montgomery in memory of the victims of lynchings in the Southern United States: the National Memorial for Peace and Justice, and The Legacy Museum.

Lynn Council

Council, Lynn
A "mock" lynching, putting the rope around the neck of someone suspected of concealing information, might be used to compel "confessions" (see Lynn Council).
1933-), 86 in 2019, was the victim of an aborted or a mock lynching in Wake County, North Carolina, in 1952.

Fred Rochelle

As in the case of Ell Parsons, they were sometimes announced in advance in newspapers and in one instance (Fred Rochelle) with a special train.
1885 – May 29, 1901) was an African-American teenager from Bartow, Florida, who was lynched and burned to death on May 29, 1901, following the alleged rape and murder of a white woman, Rena Smith Taggart, the previous day.

Yazoo County, Mississippi

YazooYazoo CountyYazoo (MS)
In Yazoo County, Mississippi, for instance, with an African-American population of 12,000, only seven votes were cast for Republicans in 1874.
In the period from 1877 to 1950, Yazoo County had 18 documented lynchings of African Americans.

Benjamin Tillman

Ben TillmanBenjamin R. TillmanBenjamin Ryan Tillman
The stated ideology of whites about lynching was directly connected with denial of political and social equality, and sexual fears of white men; it was expressed by Benjamin Tillman, a South Carolina governor and U.S. Senator, speaking on the floor of the Senate in 1900:
During his four years in office, 18 black Americans were lynched in South Carolina; in the 1890s the state had its highest number of lynchings of any decade.

Mississippi Delta

DeltaDelta regionthe Delta
In the Mississippi Delta, lynchings of blacks increased beginning in the late 19th century as white planters tried to control former slaves who had become landowners or sharecroppers.
The number of lynchings of black men rose in the region at the time of settling accounts, and researchers have also found a correlation of lynchings to years that were poor economically for the region.

Memphis, Tennessee

MemphisMemphis, TNMemphis Tennessee
In 1892, journalist Ida B. Wells-Barnett was shocked when three friends in Memphis, Tennessee, were lynched.
But she continued to investigate and publish the abuses of lynching.

W. E. B. Du Bois

W.E.B. Du BoisW.E.B. DuBoisW. E. B. DuBois
In 1915, W. E. B. Du Bois, noted scholar and head of the recently formed NAACP, called for more black-authored plays.
Racism was the main target of Du Bois's polemics, and he strongly protested against lynching, Jim Crow laws, and discrimination in education and employment.

Duluth, Minnesota

DuluthDuluth, MNDuluth, United States
In Duluth, Minnesota, on June 15, 1920, three young African-American traveling circus workers were lynched after having been accused of having raped a white woman and were jailed pending a grand jury hearing.
In September 1918, at the beginning of U.S. involvement in the Great War, a group calling itself the Knights of Liberty dragged Finnish immigrant Olli Kinkkonen from his boarding house, tarred and feathered him, and lynched him.

Paris, Texas

ParisParis, TXParis (Texas)
He was lynched at Paris, Texas, in 1893 for killing Myrtle Vance, the three-year-old daughter of a Texas policeman, after the policeman had assaulted Smith.
In the late-19th and early-20th centuries, several lynchings were staged at the Paris Fairgrounds as public spectacles, with thousands of white spectators cheering as the victims were tortured and then immolated, dismembered, or otherwise murdered.

James Allen (collector)

James Allen
In Without Sanctuary (2000), a book of lynching postcards collected by James Allen, Pulitzer Prize-winning historian Leon F. Litwack wrote:
James Allen is an American antique collector, known in particular for his collection of 145 photographs of lynchings in America, published in 2000 with Congressman John Lewis as Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America.

John Trotwood Moore

The Klan and their use of lynching was supported by some public officials like John Trotwood Moore, the State Librarian and Archivist of Tennessee from 1919 to 1929.
He was "an apologist for the Old South", and a proponent of lynching.

International Labor Defense

National Defense CommitteeLabor Defense CouncilILD
In the 1930s, communist organizations, including a legal defense organization called the International Labor Defense (ILD), organized support to stop lynching (see The Communist Party USA and African Americans).
The ILD defended Sacco and Vanzetti, was active in the anti-lynching, movements for civil rights, and prominently participated in the defense and legal appeals in the cause célèbre of the Scottsboro Boys in the early 1930s.

Port Jervis, New York

Port JervisPort Jervis, NYGermantown, Orange County, New York
In 1892, a police officer in Port Jervis, New York, tried to stop the lynching of a black man who had been wrongfully accused of assaulting a white woman.
On June 2, 1892, Robert Lewis, an African American, was lynched, hanged on Main Street in Port Jervis by a mob after being accused of participation in an assault on a white woman.

Scottsboro Boys

Scottsboro caseThe Scottsboro BoysIrwin Craig
The ILD defended the Scottsboro Boys, as well as three black men accused of rape in Tuscaloosa in 1933.
The cases included a lynch mob before the suspects had been indicted, all-white juries, rushed trials, and disruptive mobs.

Lynching of Roosevelt Townes and Robert McDaniels

Duck Hill lynchingslynchinglynching of Roosevelt Townes and Robert McDaniels
In 1937, the lynching of Roosevelt Townes and Robert McDaniels gained national publicity, and its brutality was widely condemned.
Roosevelt Townes and Robert McDaniels, two black men, were lynched on April 13, 1937, in Duck Hill, Mississippi by a white mob after being labeled as the murderers of a white storekeeper.

Racism in the United States

racismracistracial discrimination
Overall, African Americans in Northern cities experienced systemic discrimination in a plethora of aspects of life. International media, including the media in the Soviet Union, covered racial discrimination in the U.S. Deeming American criticism of the Soviet Union's human rights abuses as hypocrisy, the Soviets would respond with "And you are lynching Negroes".
Although technically able to vote, poll taxes, pervasive acts of terror such as lynching in the United States (often perpetrated by groups such as the reborn Ku Klux Klan, founded in the Reconstruction South), and discriminatory laws such as grandfather clauses kept black Americans (and many Poor Whites) disenfranchised particularly in the South.

Emmett Till

J.W. MilamRoy BryantEmmett Louis Till
A 1955 lynching that sparked public outrage about injustice was that of Emmett Till, a 14-year-old boy from Chicago.
Emmett Louis Till (July 25, 1941 – August 28, 1955) was a 14-year-old African American who was lynched in Mississippi in 1955, after being accused of offending a white woman in her family's grocery store.

And you are lynching Negroes

lynching Negroeslynching of blacks
International media, including the media in the Soviet Union, covered racial discrimination in the U.S. Deeming American criticism of the Soviet Union's human rights abuses as hypocrisy, the Soviets would respond with "And you are lynching Negroes".
Use of the phrases like these, exemplifying the tu quoque logical fallacy, was an attempt to deflect criticism of the Soviet Union by referring to racial discrimination and lynching in the United States.