Lysis

lysecell lysislysedlysatelysingcell lysatelysesoncolysislyticcrude lysate
Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") is the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic" ) mechanisms that compromise its integrity.wikipedia
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Protein purification

purifiedpurificationisolate
In molecular biology, biochemistry, and cell biology laboratories, cell cultures may be subjected to lysis in the process of purifying their components, as in protein purification, DNA extraction, RNA extraction, or in purifying organelles.
Also proteases are released during cell lysis, which will start digesting the proteins in the solution.

DNA extraction

extractedextract DNAextraction
In molecular biology, biochemistry, and cell biology laboratories, cell cultures may be subjected to lysis in the process of purifying their components, as in protein purification, DNA extraction, RNA extraction, or in purifying organelles.
Organic extraction involves the addition of and incubation in multiple different chemical solutions; including a lysis step, a phenol chloroform extraction, an ethanol precipitation, and washing steps.

Lysozyme

LYZmuramidaselysozymes
Many species of bacteria are subject to lysis by the enzyme lysozyme, found in animal saliva, egg white, and other secretions.
This hydrolysis in turn compromises the integrity of bacterial cell walls causing lysis of the bacteria.

Virus

virusesviralvirion
Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") is the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic" ) mechanisms that compromise its integrity.
Release – Viruses can be released from the host cell by lysis, a process that kills the cell by bursting its membrane and cell wall if present: This is a feature of many bacterial and some animal viruses.

Spheroplast

spheroplastsscreensphaeroplasts
If the cell wall is completely lost and the penicillin was used on gram-positive bacteria, then the bacterium is referred to as a protoplast, but if penicillin was used on gram-negative bacteria, then it is called a spheroplast.
Spheroplasts are osmotically fragile, and will lyse if transferred to a hypotonic solution.

Gram-negative bacteria

Gram-negativeGram negativeGram-negative bacterium
If the cell wall is completely lost and the penicillin was used on gram-positive bacteria, then the bacterium is referred to as a protoplast, but if penicillin was used on gram-negative bacteria, then it is called a spheroplast.
Additionally, the outer leaflet of this membrane comprises a complex lipopolysaccharide (LPS) whose lipid A component can cause a toxic reaction when these bacteria are lysed by immune cells.

Contractile vacuole

contractile vacuolesContractile vacuole complex
Cytolysis can be prevented by several different mechanisms, including the contractile vacuole that exists in some paramecia, which rapidly pump water out of the cell.
The contractile vacuole acts as part of a protective mechanism that prevents the cell from absorbing too much water and possibly lysing (rupturing) through excessive internal pressure.

Bacteriophage

phagebacteriophagesphages
Phage lytic enzymes (lysins) produced during bacteriophage infection are responsible for the ability of these viruses to lyse bacterial cells.
Meanwhile, bacteriophage researchers have been developing engineered viruses to overcome antibiotic resistance, and engineering the phage genes responsible for coding enzymes that degrade the biofilm matrix, phage structural proteins, and the enzymes responsible for lysis of the bacterial cell wall.

Vacuole

vacuolesvacuolarvacuolated
In a hypertonic environment, the cell membrane peels off of the cell wall and the vacuole collapses.
They also aid in the lysis and recycling of misfolded proteins that have begun to build up within the cell.

Penicillin

penicillinspenicillin Gpenicillin allergy
Penicillin and related β-lactam antibiotics cause the death of bacteria through enzyme-mediated lysis that occurs after the drug causes the bacterium to form a defective cell wall.
Fleming concluded that the mould released a substance that repressed the growth and caused lysing of the bacteria.

Hemolysis

hemolytichaemolysishaemolytic
Hemolysis or haemolysis, also known by several other names, is the rupturing (lysis) of red blood cells (erythrocytes) and the release of their contents (cytoplasm) into surrounding fluid (e.g. blood plasma).

Chaotropic agent

chaotropicchaotropechaotropic agents
Lysis in the laboratory may be affected by enzymes or detergents or other chaotropic agents.
This is also directly applicable to the hydrophobic region in lipid bilayers; if a critical concentration of a chaotropic solute is reached (in the hydrophobic region of the bilayer) then membrane integrity will be compromised, and the cell will lyse.

Cell disruption

bead methodcell disruptersdisrupt
The Microfluidizer method used for cell disruption strongly influences the physicochemical properties of the lysed cell suspension, such as particle size, viscosity, protein yield and enzyme activity.

Tonicity

hypertonicisotonichypotonic
In a hypertonic environment, the cell membrane peels off of the cell wall and the vacuole collapses.
For cells without a cell wall such as animal cells, if the gradient is large enough, the uptake of excess water can produce enough pressure to induce cytolysis, or rupturing of the cell.

Differential centrifugation

ultracentrifugationdensity gradient centrifugationSucrose gradient centrifugation
For example, if only the cell membrane is lysed then gradient centrifugation can be used to collect certain organelles.
In a typical case where differential centrifugation is used to analyze cell-biological phenomena (e.g. organelle distribution), a tissue sample is first lysed to break the cell membranes and release the organelles and cytosol.

Cell unroofing

Differently from the more common membrane extraction protocols performed with multiple steps of centrifugation (which goal is to separate the membrane fraction from a cell lysate), in cell unroofing the aim is to tear and preserve patches of the plasma membrane in order to perform in situ experiments using (microscopy and biomedical spectroscopy).

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
Many laboratory experiments are sensitive to the choice of lysis mechanism; often it is desirable to avoid mechanical shear forces that would denature or degrade sensitive macromolecules, such as proteins and DNA, and different types of detergents can yield different results.
This process usually begins with cell lysis, in which a cell's membrane is disrupted and its internal contents released into a solution known as a crude lysate.

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") is the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic" ) mechanisms that compromise its integrity.

Cell membrane

plasma membranemembranecell membranes
Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") is the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic" ) mechanisms that compromise its integrity. For example, if only the cell membrane is lysed then gradient centrifugation can be used to collect certain organelles.

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") is the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic" ) mechanisms that compromise its integrity.

Enzyme

enzymologyenzymesenzymatic
Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") is the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic" ) mechanisms that compromise its integrity. Lysis in the laboratory may be affected by enzymes or detergents or other chaotropic agents.

Osmosis

osmoticosmoticallyosmotic gradient
Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") is the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic" ) mechanisms that compromise its integrity.

Molecular biology

molecular biologistmolecularmolecular microbiology
In molecular biology, biochemistry, and cell biology laboratories, cell cultures may be subjected to lysis in the process of purifying their components, as in protein purification, DNA extraction, RNA extraction, or in purifying organelles.

Biochemistry

biochemistbiochemicalbiological chemistry
In molecular biology, biochemistry, and cell biology laboratories, cell cultures may be subjected to lysis in the process of purifying their components, as in protein purification, DNA extraction, RNA extraction, or in purifying organelles.

Cell biology

cytologycell biologistcellular biology
In molecular biology, biochemistry, and cell biology laboratories, cell cultures may be subjected to lysis in the process of purifying their components, as in protein purification, DNA extraction, RNA extraction, or in purifying organelles.