Métis buffalo hunt

buffalo huntersPemmicanannual buffalo huntbuffalo herdsbuffalo huntHivernants settlementsMétisMétis buffalo huntersRed River buffalo hunt
Métis buffalo hunting began on the North American plains the late 1700s and continued until 1878.wikipedia
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Métis in Canada

MétisMetisMétis people
The Metis buffalo hunts were held at two times during a year by the Métis of the Red River settlements during the North American fur trade.
But, the Plains Métis tended to identify by occupational categories: buffalo hunters, pemmican and fur traders, and "tripmen" in the York boat fur brigades among the men; the moccasin sewers and cooks were among the women.

Pembina, North Dakota

PembinaFort PembinaPembina, ND
In 1823 William H. Keating described a group of buffalo hunters he encountered at Pembina by the Red River.

St. François Xavier, Manitoba

St. François XavierSt. Francois XavierWhite Horse Plains
The St. François Xavier (White Horse Plain) group led by Jean Baptiste Falcon, son of Pierre Falcon, and accompanied by its missionary, Father Louis-François Richer Laflèche, numbered 200 carts and 67 hunters plus women and children.
In 1851, Father Louis-François Richer Laflèche accompanied the Métis buffalo hunters from the parish of St. François Xavier on one of their annual hunts on the prairies.

Louis-François Richer Laflèche

Louis-François Richer dit LaflècheBishops Louis-François Richer dit LaflècheLouis-Francois Richer Lafleche
The St. François Xavier (White Horse Plain) group led by Jean Baptiste Falcon, son of Pierre Falcon, and accompanied by its missionary, Father Louis-François Richer Laflèche, numbered 200 carts and 67 hunters plus women and children.
In 1851 he accompanied the Métis buffalo hunters of the parish of St. François Xavier located 25 km west of St. Boniface.

North American fur trade

fur tradefur tradersfur trading
The Metis buffalo hunts were held at two times during a year by the Métis of the Red River settlements during the North American fur trade.

North-West Rebellion

Northwest RebellionRiel RebellionNorth West Rebellion
Present at the Battle of Grand Coteau, fighting by their father's side, were 17-year-old Isadore Dumont who died at the Battle of Duck Lake 34 years later and 13-year-old Gabriel Dumont who commanded the Métis forces in the North-West Rebellion of 1885.
Not having clear title, the Métis feared losing their land which, now that the buffalo herds were gone, was their primary source of sustenance.

Jean Baptiste Wilkie

Ten captains were chosen in 1840 Jean Baptiste Wilkie being chosen as the war chief and the president of the camp.
(see Métis buffalo hunt)

Pemmican War

disbandmentinvoked its royal charter
So important was pemmican that, in 1814, governor Miles Macdonell nearly started a war (Pemmican War) with the Métis when he passed the short-lived Pemmican Proclamation, which forbade the export of pemmican from the Red River Colony.
Pemmican was made of dried buffalo meat pounded into a powder and mixed with melted buffalo fat in leather bags.

Gabriel Dumont (Métis leader)

Gabriel DumontDumont, Gabriel
Present at the Battle of Grand Coteau, fighting by their father's side, were 17-year-old Isadore Dumont who died at the Battle of Duck Lake 34 years later and 13-year-old Gabriel Dumont who commanded the Métis forces in the North-West Rebellion of 1885. In Saskatchewan Gabriel Dumont was the leader of the hunt for his group of 200 hunters living in the Southbranch settlements on the South Saskatchewan River from 1863 to the end of the buffalo hunts.
The Dumont family was known throughout the settlement of Red River as a prominent Métis buffalo hunting family.

Pierre Falcon

The St. François Xavier (White Horse Plain) group led by Jean Baptiste Falcon, son of Pierre Falcon, and accompanied by its missionary, Father Louis-François Richer Laflèche, numbered 200 carts and 67 hunters plus women and children.
One of his sons, Jean Baptiste Falcon, led the St. François Xavier (White Horse Plain) group of buffalo hunters in 1851 and defended the camp from the Sioux at the Battle of Grand Coteau (North Dakota).

Hivernants

hivernant
This hunt was smaller than the summer hunt as many of the hunters, the hivernants or winterers, who had taken part of the summer hunt leave the settlements to pass the winter on the Prairies with their families to trap and hunt.

Pemmican Proclamation

[6]
So important was pemmican that, in 1814, governor Miles Macdonell nearly started a war (Pemmican War) with the Métis when he passed the short-lived Pemmican Proclamation, which forbade the export of pemmican from the Red River Colony.
Pemmican was made of dried buffalo meat pounded into a powder and mixed with melted buffalo fat in leather bags.

Buffalo robe

buffalo robesbuffalo-hide roberobe
A buffalo robe is a cured buffalo hide, with the hair left on.

Southbranch Settlement

Southbranch settlementsSouth BranchSt-Laurent-Grandin Métis settlements
In Saskatchewan Gabriel Dumont was the leader of the hunt for his group of 200 hunters living in the Southbranch settlements on the South Saskatchewan River from 1863 to the end of the buffalo hunts.
Gabriel Dumont was the leader of the buffalo hunt for his group of 200 hunters living in the Southbranch settlements from 1863 to the end of the Métis buffalo hunts in about 1875.

Red River Colony

Red River SettlementRed RiverSelkirk Settlement
The Metis buffalo hunts were held at two times during a year by the Métis of the Red River settlements during the North American fur trade. So important was pemmican that, in 1814, governor Miles Macdonell nearly started a war (Pemmican War) with the Métis when he passed the short-lived Pemmican Proclamation, which forbade the export of pemmican from the Red River Colony.

Saint Boniface, Winnipeg

St. BonifaceSaint BonifaceSt. Boniface, Manitoba
The Métis of St. Boniface, situated on the banks of the Red River of the North in what is now the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, formed the largest contingent of these hunts; composed of a summer hunt and an autumn hunt.

Red River of the North

Red RiverRedRed River Valley
The Métis of St. Boniface, situated on the banks of the Red River of the North in what is now the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, formed the largest contingent of these hunts; composed of a summer hunt and an autumn hunt.

Winnipeg

Winnipeg, ManitobaWinnipeg, CanadaWinnipeg, MB
The Métis of St. Boniface, situated on the banks of the Red River of the North in what is now the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, formed the largest contingent of these hunts; composed of a summer hunt and an autumn hunt.

Manitoba

MBManitoba, CanadaProvince of Manitoba
The Métis of St. Boniface, situated on the banks of the Red River of the North in what is now the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, formed the largest contingent of these hunts; composed of a summer hunt and an autumn hunt.

American bison

buffalobisonBison bison
The summer buffalo hunt, otherwise known as the dried meat hunt, traditionally occurred from June to late July or early August.

Pemmican

dried meatPemican
The warmer temperatures made this season ideal for producing dried meat, pemmican, and buffalo tongue, which the Métis would trade most often with the Hudson Bay company.

Great Plains

PlainsSouthern PlainsNorthern Plains
In 1840 the settlement had over 4,800 people of which 1,630 took part in the summer hunt and headed south on the prairie.

York boat

York boats
Another smaller portion of the population would join the York boat brigades including the Portage La Loche Brigade heading north.

Portage La Loche Brigade

Another smaller portion of the population would join the York boat brigades including the Portage La Loche Brigade heading north.

Montana Territory

MontanaTerritory of MontanaMontana Territorial
In 1879 the hunters on the prairies of Canada reported that only a few buffalo were left of the great herds and two years later the last of the buffalo herds in the Montana Territory were also gone.