Métis in Canada

MétisMetisMétis peopleMétis people (Canada)Canadian MétisFrench MétisMétis CanadianMétis NationMétis people of CanadaCanada
The Métis in Canada are specific cultural communities who trace their descent to First Nations and European settlers, primarily the French, in the early decades of colonisation.wikipedia
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Indigenous peoples in Canada

AboriginalIndigenousAboriginal peoples in Canada
These Métis peoples are recognized as one of Canada's aboriginal peoples under the Constitution Act of 1982, along with First Nations and Inuit peoples.
They comprise the First Nations, Inuit and Métis, or by the initialism FNIM (First Nations, Inuit, Métis), Although "Indian" is a term still commonly used in legal documents, the descriptors "Indian" and "Eskimo" have somewhat fallen into disuse in Canada and some consider them to be pejorative.

Inuit

InukInuit peopleEskimos
These Métis peoples are recognized as one of Canada's aboriginal peoples under the Constitution Act of 1982, along with First Nations and Inuit peoples.
In Canada, sections 25 and 35 of the Constitution Act of 1982 classified Inuit as a distinctive group of Aboriginal Canadians who are not included under either the First Nations or the Métis.

Anglo-Métis

Anglo-MetisCountry-bornCountryborn
After New France was ceded to Great Britain's control in 1763, there was an important distinction between French Métis born of francophone voyageur fathers, and the Anglo-Métis (known as "countryborn" or Mixed Bloods, for instance in the 1870 census of Manitoba) descended from English or Scottish fathers.
A 19th century community of the Métis people of Canada, the Anglo-Métis, more commonly known as Countryborn, were children of fur traders; they typically had Scots (Orcadian, mainland Scottish), or English fathers and Aboriginal mothers.

Metis in the United States

MétisMetisMétis in the United States
Canadian Métis represent the majority of people that identify as Métis, although there are a number of Métis in the United States. Closely related are the Métis in the United States, primarily those in border areas such as northern Michigan, the Red River Valley, and eastern Montana.
The Métis in the U.S. are fewer in number than the neighboring Métis in Canada.

Manitoba

MBManitoba, CanadaProvince of Manitoba
After New France was ceded to Great Britain's control in 1763, there was an important distinction between French Métis born of francophone voyageur fathers, and the Anglo-Métis (known as "countryborn" or Mixed Bloods, for instance in the 1870 census of Manitoba) descended from English or Scottish fathers. The most commonly known group are the "Red River Métis", centring on southern and central parts of Manitoba along the Red River of the North.
There are many factors that led to an armed uprising of the Métis people against the Government of Canada, a conflict known as the Red River Rebellion.

Métis

Métis peopleMetisMetis people
Canadian Métis represent the majority of people that identify as Métis, although there are a number of Métis in the United States.
Since the late 20th century, the Métis in Canada have been recognized as a distinct aboriginal people under the Constitution Act of 1982; and have a population of 587,545 as of 2016.

Cree

Cree peopleNehiyawCree Nation
The women in the unions in eastern Canada were usually Wabanaki, Algonquin, and Menominee; and in western Canada they were Saulteaux, Cree, Ojibwe, Nakoda, and Dakota/Lakota, or of mixed descent from these peoples.
The Métis (from the French, Métis - of mixed ancestry) are people of mixed ancestry, such as Nehiyaw (or Anishinaabe) and French, English, or Scottish heritage.

Bois-Brûlés

bois brulesBois-Brulés
Such polyethnic people were historically referred to by other terms, many of which are now considered to be offensive, such as Mixed-bloods, Half-breeds, Bois-Brûlés, Bungi, Black Scots, and Jackatars.
The name is most frequently associated with the French-speaking Métis of the Red River Colony in the Red River valley of Canada and the United States.

First Nations

First NationNorth American IndianIndian
The Métis in Canada are specific cultural communities who trace their descent to First Nations and European settlers, primarily the French, in the early decades of colonisation.
The Métis, another distinct ethnicity, developed after European contact and relations primarily between First Nations people and Europeans.

Saulteaux

Plains OjibweSalteauxBungi
The women in the unions in eastern Canada were usually Wabanaki, Algonquin, and Menominee; and in western Canada they were Saulteaux, Cree, Ojibwe, Nakoda, and Dakota/Lakota, or of mixed descent from these peoples.
Often, the term Bungi or Bungee (from bangii meaning "a little bit") has been used to refer to either the Manitoba Saulteaux (who are a little bit like the Cree) or their Métis population (who are a little bit Anishinaabe).

Southbranch Settlement

Southbranch settlementsSouth BranchSt-Laurent-Grandin Métis settlements
The most well-known and historically documented mixed-ancestry population in Canadian history are the groups who developed during the fur trade in south-eastern Rupert's Land, primarily in the Red River Settlement (now Manitoba) and the Southbranch Settlements (Saskatchewan).
Southbranch Settlement was the name ascribed to a series of French Métis settlements on the Canadian prairies in the 19th Century, in what is today the province of Saskatchewan.

Louis Riel

RielexecutionRiel Rebellions
But the strong sense of ethnic national identity among the mostly French- and Michif-speaking Métis along the Red River, demonstrated during the Riel Rebellions, resulted in wider use of the term "Métis" as the main word used by Canadians for all mixed Euro-Native groups.
Louis David Riel (22 October 1844 – 16 November 1885) was a Canadian politician, a founder of the province of Manitoba, and a political leader of the Métis people of the Canadian Prairies.

Métis National Council

Métis NationMetis National Council
Two main advocacy groups claim to speak for the Métis in Canada: the Congress of Aboriginal Peoples (CAP) and the Métis National Council.(MNC).
The Métis National Council (Ralliement national des Métis) is the representative body of the Métis people of northwestern Canada.

R v Powley

Powley rulingPowleyPowley Case
Until R v. Powley (2003), there was no legal definition of Métis other than the legal requirements found in the Métis Settlements Act of 1990.
, commonly called the Powley ruling, is a Supreme Court of Canada case defining Métis Aboriginal rights under section 35(1) of the Constitution Act, 1982.

Voyageurs

voyageurexperienced companionsFrench explorers
After New France was ceded to Great Britain's control in 1763, there was an important distinction between French Métis born of francophone voyageur fathers, and the Anglo-Métis (known as "countryborn" or Mixed Bloods, for instance in the 1870 census of Manitoba) descended from English or Scottish fathers.
To save the cost of hauling food from Montreal Métis around Winnipeg began the large-scale production of pemmican.

Red River of the North

Red RiverRedRed River Valley
But the strong sense of ethnic national identity among the mostly French- and Michif-speaking Métis along the Red River, demonstrated during the Riel Rebellions, resulted in wider use of the term "Métis" as the main word used by Canadians for all mixed Euro-Native groups. The most commonly known group are the "Red River Métis", centring on southern and central parts of Manitoba along the Red River of the North.
The river was long used by fur traders, including the French and the Métis people, who established a community in this area before the British defeated France in the Seven Years' War.

Métis fiddle

distinctive style used in the Western fur trade and associated with the Métis people in particularfiddlefiddle music, jigs and square dances
Traditional markers of Métis culture include use of creole Aboriginal-European languages, such as Michif (French-Cree-Dene) and Bungi (Cree-Ojibwa-English); distinctive clothing, such as the arrow sash (ceinture flêchée); and a rich repertoire of fiddle music, jigs and square dances, and practising a traditional economy based on hunting, trapping, and gathering.
Métis fiddle is the style which the Métis of Canada and Métis in the northern United States have developed to play the violin, solo and in folk ensembles.

Congress of Aboriginal Peoples

Native Council of Canada
Two main advocacy groups claim to speak for the Métis in Canada: the Congress of Aboriginal Peoples (CAP) and the Métis National Council.(MNC).
The Congress of Aboriginal Peoples (CAP) (formerly the Native Council of Canada and briefly the Indigenous Peoples Assembly of Canada), founded in 1971, is a national Canadian aboriginal organization, that represents Aboriginal peoples (Non-Status, and Status Indians, Métis and Southern Inuit) who live off Indian reserves, in either urban or rural areas across Canada.

Treaty rights

process for a formalised treaty for Indigenous Victoriansrighttreaties
Questions remain as to whether Métis have treaty rights; this is an explosive issue in the Canadian Aboriginal community today.
This applies to the rights of Alaska Natives and Native Americans in the United States and First Nations in Canada, as well as to a smaller number of Inuit and Metis in Canada who have entered into treaties.

Indigenous self-government in Canada

Aboriginal self-government in CanadaAboriginal self-governmentAct Electoral System
Three of the comprehensive settlements (modern treaties) in force in the Northwest Territories include benefits for Métis people who can prove local Aboriginal ancestry prior to 1921 (Treaty 11).
Aboriginal peoples in Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982 as Indians, Inuit and Métis.

Fort Edmonton

Edmonton Housecompany's trading outpost named after EdmontonFort Augustus
In the Fort Edmonton region however, many House Indians never adopted a Métis identity but continued to identify primarily as Cree, Saulteaux, Ojibwa, and Chipweyan descendants up until the early 20th century.
From 1795 to 1821 it was paired with the North West Company's Fort Augustus. It was the end point of the Carlton Trail, the main overland route for Metis freighters between the Red River Colony and the west and an important stop on the York Factory Express route between London, via Hudson Bay, and Fort Vancouver in the Columbia District.

Indian Register

Status IndianregisteredStatus Indians
There is no comprehensive legal definition of Métis status in Canada; this is in contrast to the Indian Act, which creates an Indian Register for all (Status) First Nations people.
Status Indians have rights and benefits that are not granted to unregistered Aboriginal Canadians, Inuit, or Métis, the chief benefits of which include the granting of reserves and of rights associated with them, an extended hunting season, a less restricted right to bear arms, an exemption from federal and provincial taxes, and more freedom in the management of gaming and tobacco franchises via less government interference and taxes.

Red River Valley

Red River BasinRed RiverRed River of the North
Closely related are the Métis in the United States, primarily those in border areas such as northern Michigan, the Red River Valley, and eastern Montana.
The valley was long an area of habitation by various indigenous cultures, including the historic Ojibwe and Métis peoples.

Métis buffalo hunt

buffalo huntersPemmicanannual buffalo hunt
But, the Plains Métis tended to identify by occupational categories: buffalo hunters, pemmican and fur traders, and "tripmen" in the York boat fur brigades among the men; the moccasin sewers and cooks were among the women.
The Metis buffalo hunts were held at two times during a year by the Métis of the Red River settlements during the North American fur trade.

Métis Nation of Alberta

Metis Nation of AlbertaMétis Association of AlbertaMétis Local
For example, for membership in the Métis Nation of Alberta Association (MNAA), an applicant must provide a documented genealogy and family tree dating to the mid 1800s, proving descent from one or more members of historic Métis groups.
Its primary goal was to be a political body to lobby the government on behalf of the Métis people.