Métis in Canada

MétisMetisMétis peopleMétis people (Canada)Canadian MétisFrench MétisMétis CanadianMétis NationMétis people of CanadaCanada
The Métis in Canada are specific cultural communities who trace their descent to First Nations and European settlers, primarily the French, in the early decades of colonisation.wikipedia
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Northern Michigan

NorthernNorthern Lower Michigannorthern part
Closely related are the Métis in the United States, primarily those in border areas such as northern Michigan, the Red River Valley, and eastern Montana.

Eastern Montana

eastern
Closely related are the Métis in the United States, primarily those in border areas such as northern Michigan, the Red River Valley, and eastern Montana.

North American fur trade

fur tradefur tradersfur trading
These were areas in which there was considerable Aboriginal and European mixing due to the 19th-century fur trade. During the height of the North American fur trade in New France from 1650 onward, many French and British fur traders married First Nations and Inuit women, mainly Cree, Ojibwa, or Saulteaux located in the Great Lakes area and later into the north west.

Western Canada

Canadian WestWestern Canadianwestern
Geneticists estimate that 50 percent of today's population in Western Canada has some Aboriginal ancestry.

Treaty 3

Ojibway Treaty No. 3Treaties 3Treaty Three
The Métis did not sign treaties with Canada, with the exception of an adhesion to Treaty 3 in Northwest Ontario.

National identity

identitynationalnational identities
But the strong sense of ethnic national identity among the mostly French- and Michif-speaking Métis along the Red River, demonstrated during the Riel Rebellions, resulted in wider use of the term "Métis" as the main word used by Canadians for all mixed Euro-Native groups.

Section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982

section 35Section Thirty-five of the Constitution Act, 1982section 35(1)
Continued organizing and political activity resulted in "the Métis" gaining official recognition from the national government as one of the recognized Aboriginal groups in S.35 of the Constitution Act, 1982, which states:

Indian Act

Bill C-31Indian Act of CanadaCanadian Indian Act
There is no comprehensive legal definition of Métis status in Canada; this is in contrast to the Indian Act, which creates an Indian Register for all (Status) First Nations people.

Indigenous rights

Aboriginal rightsrights of indigenous peoplesrights
Some commentators have argued that one of the rights of an Indigenous people is to define its own identity, precluding the need for a government-sanctioned definition.

Robinson Treaty

Robinson Huron TreatyRobinson Superior TreatyRobinson-Huron Treaty
Another, the Robinson Superior Treaty of 1850, listed 84 persons classified as "half-breeds" in the Treaty, so included them and their descendants.

Treaty 11

Treaty No. 11No. 11
Three of the comprehensive settlements (modern treaties) in force in the Northwest Territories include benefits for Métis people who can prove local Aboriginal ancestry prior to 1921 (Treaty 11).

Canadian Métis Council

The Canadian Métis Council will accept persons of mixed blood (European/Aboriginal blood (Indian ancestry)) that is distinct from Indian and Inuit, and who have genealogical ties to Aboriginal ancestry.

Métis Nation of Ontario

MétisMétis Nation of Ontario Youth Council
The Métis Nation of Ontario requires that successful applicants for what it calls "citizenship", must "see themselves and identify themselves as distinctly Métis. This requires that individuals make a positive choice to be culturally and identifiable Métis".

Creole language

creolecreolescreole languages
Traditional markers of Métis culture include use of creole Aboriginal-European languages, such as Michif (French-Cree-Dene) and Bungi (Cree-Ojibwa-English); distinctive clothing, such as the arrow sash (ceinture flêchée); and a rich repertoire of fiddle music, jigs and square dances, and practising a traditional economy based on hunting, trapping, and gathering.

French people

FrenchFrenchmanFrenchmen
During the height of the North American fur trade in New France from 1650 onward, many French and British fur traders married First Nations and Inuit women, mainly Cree, Ojibwa, or Saulteaux located in the Great Lakes area and later into the north west.

Catholic Church

Roman CatholicCatholicRoman Catholic Church
The majority of these fur traders were French and Scottish; the French majority were Catholic.

York boat

York boats
(Foster cites the legendary York boat captain Paulet Paul as an example).

North West Company

XY CompanyNorthwest CompanyNorthwest Fur Company
The Hudson's Bay Company discouraged unions between their fur traders and First Nations and Inuit women, while the North West Company (the English-speaking Quebec-based fur trading company) supported such marriages.

Moccasin

moccasinsDriving moccasinsmocassins
But, the Plains Métis tended to identify by occupational categories: buffalo hunters, pemmican and fur traders, and "tripmen" in the York boat fur brigades among the men; the moccasin sewers and cooks were among the women.

Athabasca River

AthabascaAthabasca ValleyAthabaska River
The largest community in the Assiniboine-Red River district had a different lifestyle and culture from those Métis located in the Saskatchewan, Alberta, Athabasca, and Peace river valleys to the west.

Peace River

Peaceone casePeace Pass
The largest community in the Assiniboine-Red River district had a different lifestyle and culture from those Métis located in the Saskatchewan, Alberta, Athabasca, and Peace river valleys to the west.

Government of Canada

Canadian governmentfederal governmentfederal
In 1869, two years after Canadian Confederacy, the Government of Canada exerted its power over the people living in Rupert's Land after it acquired the land in the mid-19th century from the Hudson's Bay Company.

Orcadians

Orcadian
The Métis and the Anglo-Métis (commonly known as Countryborn, children of First Nations women and Orcadian, other Scottish or English men), joined forces to stand up for their rights.