Māori people

MāoriMaoriNew Zealand MāoriMaorisMaori peopleNew ZealandMāoridom MāoriMāori communityMāoris
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.wikipedia
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Māori culture

MāoriMaoriculture
Over several centuries in isolation, these settlers developed their own distinctive culture whose language, mythology, crafts and performing arts evolved independently from other eastern Polynesian cultures.
Māori culture (Māoritanga) involves the customs, cultural practices, and beliefs of the indigenous Māori people of New Zealand.

New Zealand

NZLNZKiwi
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.
In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.

Treaty of Waitangi

Te Tiriti o WaitangiTreatyThe Treaty of Waitangi
Initial relations between Māori and Europeans were largely amicable, and with the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, the two cultures coexisted. The British government sent Royal Navy Captain William Hobson to negotiate a treaty between the British Crown and the Māori, which became known as the Treaty of Waitangi.
The Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty first signed on 6 February 1840 by representatives of the British Crown and Māori chiefs (rangatira) from the North Island of New Zealand.

Treaty of Waitangi claims and settlements

Treaty of Waitangi settlementstreaty settlementTreaty of Waitangi settlement
Political and economic redress for historical grievances is also ongoing (see Treaty of Waitangi claims and settlements).
Successive governments have increasingly provided formal legal and political opportunity for Māori to seek redress for breaches by the Crown of the guarantees set out in the Treaty of Waitangi.

Māori religion

maurianimisticChristian
In legends and oral traditions, the word distinguished ordinary mortal human beings—tāngata māori—from deities and spirits (wairua).
Māori religion encompasses the various religious beliefs and practices of the Māori, the Polynesian indigenous people of New Zealand.

Māori protest movement

Māori rightsMāori land marchMāori biculturalism
Traditional Māori culture has thereby enjoyed a significant revival, which was further bolstered by a Māori protest movement that emerged in the 1960s.
Most members of the movement have been Māori but it has attracted some support from pākehā (non-Māori) New Zealanders and internationally, particularly from other indigenous peoples.

Pākehā

PakehaPākehaEuropean
They are the second-largest ethnic group in New Zealand, after European New Zealanders ("Pākehā").
The term is also applied to fair-skinned persons, or to any non-Māori New Zealander.

Waka (canoe)

wakawaka tauacanoe
Māori originated with settlers from eastern Polynesia, who arrived in New Zealand in several waves of waka (canoe) voyages somewhere between 1320 and 1350.
Waka are Māori watercraft, usually canoes ranging in size from small, unornamented canoes (waka tīwai) used for fishing and river travel, to large, decorated war canoes (waka taua) up to 40 metres (130 ft) long.

Moa

DinornithidaeDinornithiformesEmeidae
The early Māori diet included an abundance of moa and other large birds and fur seals that had never been hunted before.
They were the dominant herbivores in New Zealand's forest, shrubland, and subalpine ecosystems for thousands of years, and until the arrival of the Māori, were hunted only by Haast's eagle.

Human cannibalism

cannibalcannibalscannibalism
A fierce warrior culture included hillforts known as pā and cannibalism.
Cannibalism has been well documented around the world, from Fiji to the Amazon Basin to the Congo to the Māori people of New Zealand.

Boyd massacre

BoydBoyd'' massacreburning of the ''Boyd
Relations were mostly peaceful, although marred by several further violent incidents, the worst of which was the Boyd massacre and subsequent revenge attacks.
The Boyd massacre occurred in December 1809 when Māori residents of Whangaroa Harbour in northern New Zealand killed and ate between 66 and 70 Europeans.

Moriori

Moriori people MorioriGenocide of the Moriori
Around the year 1500, a group of Māori migrated east to the Chatham Islands and developed into a people known as the Moriori, with pacifism a key part of their culture.
Moriori originated from Māori settlers from the New Zealand mainland around the year 1500.

Polynesians

PolynesianPolynesian peoplePolynesian peoples
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.
Polynesians, including Fijians, Samoans, Tongans, Niueans, Cook Islands Māori, Tahitian Mā'ohi, Hawaiian Māoli, Marquesans and New Zealand Māori, are a subset of the Austronesian peoples.

Marc-Joseph Marion du Fresne

Marion du FresneMarc-Joseph Marion DufresneMarion Dufresne
The first European explorers to New Zealand were Abel Tasman, who arrived in 1642; Captain James Cook, in 1769; and Marion du Fresne in 1772.
Du Fresne was killed by Māori in 1772.

Musket Wars

intertribal warfareinvasionsmusket war
The introduction of the potato revolutionised agriculture, and the acquisition of muskets by Māori iwi led to a period of particularly bloody intertribal warfare known as the Musket Wars, in which many groups were decimated and others driven from their traditional territory.
The Musket Wars were a series of as many as 3,000 battles and raids fought throughout New Zealand (including the Chatham Islands) among Māori between 1807 and 1837, after Māori first obtained muskets and then engaged in an intertribal arms race in order to gain territory or seek revenge for past defeats.

Wairau Affray

Wairau MassacreWairausettler-Māori conflict
When violence did break out, as in the Wairau Affray, Flagstaff War, Hutt Valley Campaign and Wanganui Campaign it was generally limited and concluded with a peace treaty.
The Wairau Affray (called the Wairau Massacre in many older texts), on 17 June 1843, was the first serious clash of arms between Māori and the British settlers in New Zealand after the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi and the only one to take place in the South Island.

Rangatira

chiefsChieftainesschieftainship
and the British Crown acceded to repeated requests from missionaries and some Māori chiefs (rangatira) to intervene.
Rangatira are the hereditary Māori leaders of hapū, and were described by ethnologists such as Elsdon Best as chieftains (p.

New Zealand Wars

New ZealandLand WarsMaori Wars
However, by the 1860s rising settler numbers and tensions over disputed land purchases led to the later New Zealand wars, fought by the colonial government against numerous Māori iwi using local and British Imperial troops, and some allied iwi.
The New Zealand Wars were a series of armed conflicts that took place in New Zealand from 1845 to 1872 between the Colonial government and allied Māori on one side and Māori and Māori-allied settlers on the other.

Hutt Valley Campaign

Hutt ValleyBoulcott Farm hostilities in the Hutt Valley (1846)
When violence did break out, as in the Wairau Affray, Flagstaff War, Hutt Valley Campaign and Wanganui Campaign it was generally limited and concluded with a peace treaty.
The Hutt Valley Campaign an armed conflict in the lower North Island of New Zealand between indigenous Māori and British settlers and military forces in 1846.

New Zealand land-confiscations

confiscatedconfiscationland confiscations
These conflicts resulted in the colonial government confiscating tracts of Māori land as punishment for what were called "rebellions".
The New Zealand land-confiscations took place during the 1860s to punish the Kingitanga movement for attempting to set up an alternative, Māori, form of government that forbade the selling of land to European settlers.

William Hobson

Governor HobsonCaptain William HobsonHobson
The British government sent Royal Navy Captain William Hobson to negotiate a treaty between the British Crown and the Māori, which became known as the Treaty of Waitangi.
On 5 February 1840, Hobson met with Māori chiefs at Waitangi, where they signed a treaty by which the chiefs purportedly voluntarily transferred sovereignty to the British Crown in return for guarantees respecting their lands and possessions and their rights as British subjects.

2018 New Zealand census

2018 census201853,082 in 2018
In the 2018 census, there were 775,836 people in New Zealand identifying as Māori, making up 16.5 per cent of the national population.

Pacifism

pacifistpacifistspacifistic
Around the year 1500, a group of Māori migrated east to the Chatham Islands and developed into a people known as the Moriori, with pacifism a key part of their culture.
In turn, this led to their almost complete annihilation in 1835 by invading Ngāti Mutunga and Ngāti Tama Māori from the Taranaki region of the North Island of New Zealand.

Parihaka

MahikuareMāori political prisonersParihaka Marae
Several minor conflicts also arose after the wars, including the incident at Parihaka in 1881 and the Dog Tax War from 1897–98.
In the 1870s and 1880s the settlement, then reputed to be the largest Māori village in New Zealand, became the centre of a major campaign of non-violent resistance to European occupation of confiscated land in the area.

James Carroll (New Zealand politician)

James CarrollSir James CarrollCarroll, Sir James
Influential Māori politicians such as James Carroll, Āpirana Ngata, Te Rangi Hīroa and Maui Pomare aimed to revitalise the Māori people after the devastation of the previous century.
Sir James Carroll (20 August 1857 – 18 October 1926), known to Māori as Timi Kara, was a New Zealand politician of Irish and Ngāti Kahungunu (Māori) descent.