MDA5

IFIH1MDA-5Melanoma differentiation-associated antigen 5 (MDA5)
MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5) is a RIG-I-like receptor dsRNA helicase enzyme that in humans is encoded by the IFIH1 gene.wikipedia
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RIG-I-like receptor

RLR(RIG)-I-like receptorsretinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptor
MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5) is a RIG-I-like receptor dsRNA helicase enzyme that in humans is encoded by the IFIH1 gene.
Together with MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated 5) and LGP2 (laboratory of genetics and physiology 2), this family of cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are sentinels for intracellular viral RNA that is a product of viral infection.

RIG-I

DDX58retinoic acid-inducible gene Iretinoic acid-inducible gene-1 (RIG-1)
MDA5 is part of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family, which also includes RIG-I and LGP2, and functions as a pattern recognition receptor (recognizing dsRNA) that is a sensor for viruses.
RIG-I is part of the RIG-I-like receptor family, which also includes MDA5 and LGP2, and functions as a pattern recognition receptor that is a sensor for viruses such as influenza A, Sendai virus, and flavivirus.

Helicase

DNA helicaseRNA helicasehelicases
MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5) is a RIG-I-like receptor dsRNA helicase enzyme that in humans is encoded by the IFIH1 gene.

Aicardi–Goutières syndrome

Aicardi-Goutieres syndromeAGSAicardi–Goutieres syndrome
Mutations in IFIH1/MDA5 are associated to and to Aicardi–Goutières syndrome.
AGS can occur due to mutations in any one of a number of different genes, of which seven have been identified to date, namely: TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C (which together encode the Ribonuclease H2 enzyme complex), SAMHD1, ADAR1, and IFIH1 (coding for MDA5).

LGP2

DHX58
MDA5 is part of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family, which also includes RIG-I and LGP2, and functions as a pattern recognition receptor (recognizing dsRNA) that is a sensor for viruses.
LGP2 has been found to be essential for producing effective antiviral responses against many viruses that are recognized by RIG-I and MDA5.

Pattern recognition receptor

pattern recognition receptorspattern recognition receptors (PRRs)(PRRs)
MDA5 is part of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family, which also includes RIG-I and LGP2, and functions as a pattern recognition receptor (recognizing dsRNA) that is a sensor for viruses.
Three RLR helicases have so far been described: RIG-I and MDA5 (recognizing 5'triphosphate-RNA and dsRNA, respectively), which activate antiviral signaling, and LGP2, which appears to act as a dominant-negative inhibitor.

RNA

ribonucleic aciddsRNAdouble-stranded RNA
MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5) is a RIG-I-like receptor dsRNA helicase enzyme that in humans is encoded by the IFIH1 gene.

Enzyme

enzymologyenzymesenzymatic
MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5) is a RIG-I-like receptor dsRNA helicase enzyme that in humans is encoded by the IFIH1 gene.

Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5) is a RIG-I-like receptor dsRNA helicase enzyme that in humans is encoded by the IFIH1 gene.

Virus

virusesviralvirion
MDA5 is part of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family, which also includes RIG-I and LGP2, and functions as a pattern recognition receptor (recognizing dsRNA) that is a sensor for viruses.

Single-nucleotide polymorphism

single nucleotide polymorphismSNPSNPs
Some IFIH1 SNP s are associated with increased risk of type 1 diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes

diabetes mellitus type 1type I diabetesjuvenile diabetes
Some IFIH1 SNP s are associated with increased risk of type 1 diabetes.

Interstitial lung disease

interstitial pneumonitisinterstitial pneumoniapulmonary fibrosis
Antibodies against MDA5 are associated to amyopathic dermatomyositis with rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease.

Interferon-alpha/beta receptor

IFNARIFN-α receptorinterferon alpha receptor
Activation of various innate immune signaling pathways (TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, cGAS, RIG-I, MDA-5) leads to the rapid induction of type I IFNs due to their (mostly) intronless gene structure.

Murine respirovirus

Sendai virusHemagglutinating virus of JapanSendai
=V protein from SeV and many other paramyxoviruses has been shown to directly bind MDA5 and inhibit its activation of the IFN promoter.

Ribonuclease L

RNase LRNASELHereditary Prostate cancer gene 1
This can lead to activation of MDA5, an RNA helicase involved in the production of interferons.

Interferon

interferonsIFNIFN-γ
Binding of molecules uniquely found in microbes—viral glycoproteins, viral RNA, bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), bacterial flagella, CpG motifs—by pattern recognition receptors, such as membrane bound Toll like receptors or the cytoplasmic receptors RIG-I or MDA5, can trigger release of IFNs.

Norovirus

Norwalk virusnorovirusesNorovirus acute gastroenteritis
A 2008 study suggests the protein MDA-5 may be the primary immune sensor that detects the presence of noroviruses in the body.

Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein

MAVSVISAIPS-1
Double-stranded RNA viruses are recognized in a cell type-dependent manner by the transmembrane receptor TLR3 or by the cytoplasmic RNA helicases MDA5 and RIG-I.

SNX8

In addition, SNX8 also plays a role in RIG-I containing CARD domain-mediated and MDA5-mediated activation of the IFNβ promoter, since VISA works as an intermediate for both signaling pathways.

Ebola virus disease

EbolaEbola virusEbola hemorrhagic fever
When a cell is infected with EBOV, receptors located in the cell's cytosol (such as RIG-I and MDA5) or outside of the cytosol (such as Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9) recognize infectious molecules associated with the virus.

Singleton Merten syndrome

Singleton-Merten syndrome
This condition has been associated with mutations in the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (DDX58) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (IFIH1) genes.