MDMA

ecstasyMethylenedioxymethamphetamineEmolly3,4-methylenedioxy-''N''-methylamphetamine3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamineecstasy (MDMA)ecstasy pillsecstasy tabletsEcstasy (drug)
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E) or molly, is a psychoactive drug primarily used as a recreational drug.wikipedia
1,223 Related Articles

Recreational drug use

recreational drugdrug userecreational drugs
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E) or molly, is a psychoactive drug primarily used as a recreational drug.
What controlled substances are considered illegal drugs varies by country, but usually includes methamphetamine, heroin, cocaine, LSD, psilocybin mushrooms, MDMA and club drugs.

Psychoactive drug

psychoactivepsychotropicdrug
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E) or molly, is a psychoactive drug primarily used as a recreational drug.

Stimulant

stimulantspsychostimulantpsychostimulants
It belongs to the substituted amphetamine classes of drugs and has stimulant and hallucinogenic effects.
It is estimated that the percentage of the population that has abused amphetamine-type stimulants (e.g., amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, etc.) and cocaine combined is between 0.8% and 2.1%.

Substituted amphetamine

amphetaminesamphetaminesubstituted amphetamines
It belongs to the substituted amphetamine classes of drugs and has stimulant and hallucinogenic effects.
Examples of substituted amphetamines are amphetamine (itself), methamphetamine, ephedrine, cathinone, phentermine, mephentermine, bupropion, methoxyphenamine, selegiline, amfepramone, pyrovalerone, MDMA (ecstasy), and DOM (STP).

Empathogen–entactogen

entactogenentactogenicempathogen
Empathogens or entactogens are a class of psychoactive drugs that produce experiences of emotional communion, oneness, relatedness, emotional openness—that is, empathy or sympathy—as particularly observed and reported for experiences with 3,4- Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).

Amphetamine

Benzedrinespeedamphetamines
It is often sold mixed with other substances such as ephedrine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine.
It is also the parent compound of its own structural class, the substituted amphetamines, which includes prominent substances such as bupropion, cathinone, MDMA, and methamphetamine.

Insomnia

trouble sleepingsleeplessnessdifficulty sleeping
Adverse effects include addiction, memory problems, paranoia, difficulty sleeping, teeth grinding, blurred vision, sweating, and a rapid heartbeat.

Mephedrone

4-Methylmethcathinone4-MMCMiaow-Miaow
Some of these substances contain methylone, ethylone, MDPV, mephedrone, or any other of the group of compounds commonly known as bath salts, in addition to, or in place of, MDMA.
It comes in the form of tablets or a powder, which users can swallow, snort or inject, producing similar effects to MDMA, amphetamines and cocaine.

Methylone

3,4-Methylenedioxy-''N''-methylcathinoneMDMC
Some of these substances contain methylone, ethylone, MDPV, mephedrone, or any other of the group of compounds commonly known as bath salts, in addition to, or in place of, MDMA.
Methylone is the substituted cathinone analog of MDMA and the 3,4-methylenedioxy analog of methcathinone.

Bruxism

teeth grindinggrinding of teethsleep bruxism
Adverse effects include addiction, memory problems, paranoia, difficulty sleeping, teeth grinding, blurred vision, sweating, and a rapid heartbeat.
Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) has been reported to be associated with bruxism, which occurs immediately after taking the drug and for several days afterwards.

Electronic dance music

EDMdanceelectronic dance
MDMA is commonly associated with dance parties, raves, and electronic dance music.
Both places became synonymous with acid house, and it was during this period that MDMA gained prominence as a party drug.

Adulterant

adulterationadulteratedfood adulteration
MDMA has become widely known as ecstasy (shortened "E", "X", or "XTC"), usually referring to its tablet form, although this term may also include the presence of possible adulterants or diluents.

Serotonin

5-HTserotonergic5-hydroxytryptamine
MDMA acts primarily by increasing the activity of the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline in parts of the brain.
The empathogen-entactogen MDMA releases serotonin from synaptic vesicles of neurons.

Euphoria

euphoriceuphorianthigh
Dopaminergic stimulants like amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, MDMA, and methylphenidate are euphoriants.

Serotonin syndrome

hyperserotonemiaserotonin toxicitycentral toxic serotonin reaction
Acute toxicity is mainly caused by serotonin syndrome and sympathomimetic effects.
This may include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), amphetamines, pethidine (meperidine), tramadol, dextromethorphan, buspirone, L-tryptophan, 5-HTP, St. John's wort, triptans, ecstasy (MDMA), metoclopramide, ondansetron, or cocaine.

Substance dependence

addictiondependencedrug dependence
One study found approximately 15% of chronic MDMA users met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for substance dependence.

3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine

MDEAMethylenedioxyethylamphetamineMDE
Tablets sold as ecstasy sometimes contain 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), other amphetamine derivatives, caffeine, opiates, or painkillers.
MDEA is used recreationally in a similar manner to MDMA (also called ecstasy), however the subjective effects of MDEA are milder and shorter lasting.

Hyperthermia

heat stresshyperthermicheat stroke
The most serious short-term physical health risks of MDMA are hyperthermia and dehydration.

Hallucinogen

hallucinogenicpsychedelic drughallucinogens
It belongs to the substituted amphetamine classes of drugs and has stimulant and hallucinogenic effects.
Despite being scheduled as a controlled substance in the mid-1980s, MDMA's popularity has been growing since that time in western Europe and in the United States.

Neurotransmitter

neurotransmittersexcitatory neurotransmitterneurotransmitter system
MDMA acts primarily by increasing the activity of the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline in parts of the brain.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitor

MAOImonoamine oxidase inhibitorsMAOIs
Severe overdose resulting in death has also been reported in people who took MDMA in combination with certain monoamine oxidase inhibitors, such as phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate), or moclobemide (Aurorix, Manerix).
Certain combinations can cause lethal reactions, common examples including SSRIs, tricyclics, MDMA, meperidine, tramadol, and dextromethorphan.

Stimulant psychosis

amphetamine psychosispsychosisdrug-induced psychosis
Common amphetamines include cathinone, DOM, ephedrine, MDMA, methamphetamine, and methcathinone though a large number of such compounds have been synthesized.

Monoamine transporter

MATmonoamine reuptake transporterreuptake transporter
MDMA is also a monoamine transporter substrate (i.e., a substrate for DAT, NET, and SERT), so it enters monoamine neurons via these neuronal membrane transport proteins; by acting as a monoamine transporter substrate, MDMA produces competitive reuptake inhibition at the neuronal membrane transporters (i.e., it competes with endogenous monoamines for reuptake).
Furthermore, drugs such as MDMA ("ecstasy", "molly") and natural alkaloids such as cocaine exert their effects in part by their interaction with MATs, by blocking the transporters from mopping up dopamine, serotonin, and other neurotransmitters from the synapse.

Hyponatremia

Hyponatraemialow blood sodiumlow blood sodium levels
Cases of life-threatening or fatal hyponatremia (excessively low sodium concentration in the blood) have developed in MDMA users attempting to prevent dehydration by consuming excessive amounts of water without replenishing electrolytes.