MG 08

LMG 08/15Maschinengewehr 08MG 08/15MG08lMG 08MG08/15LMG 08/15 SpandauSpandauSpandau machine gunlMG 08 ''Spandau
The Maschinengewehr 08, or MG 08, was the German Army's standard machine gun in World War I and is an adaptation of Hiram S. Maxim's original 1884 Maxim gun.wikipedia
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Maxim gun

Maxim machine gunMaximMaxim machine guns
The Maschinengewehr 08, or MG 08, was the German Army's standard machine gun in World War I and is an adaptation of Hiram S. Maxim's original 1884 Maxim gun. The German Rifle Commission began firing tests of the Maxim gun at Zorndorf in 1889.
The German Army's Maschinengewehr 08 and the Russian Pulemyot Maxim were both more or less direct copies of the Maxim.

Spandau

Berlin-SpandauBezirk SpandauBerlin – Spandau
The result was the MG 08, which went into production at Spandau in 1908.
That arsenal's Spandau machine gun inspired the slang Spandau Ballet to describe dying soldiers on barbed wire during the First World War, and later was applied to the appearance of Nazi war criminals hanged at Spandau Prison.

Deutsche Waffen- und Munitionsfabriken

Deutsche Waffen und MunitionsfabrikenDWMLudwig Loewe & Company
Pre-war production was by Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken (DWM) in Berlin and by the government Spandau arsenal (so the gun was often referred to as a Spandau MG 08).
DWM manufactured the Maschinengewehr 01 and Maschinengewehr 08, licensed version/clone of the Maxim machine gun.

Parabellum MG 14

Parabellum MG14ParabellumDWM Parabellum MG 14 and MG 14/17
The Parabellum MG14 built by DWM was a lighter (22 lbs) and quite different, air-cooled Maxim system gun with a very high rate of fire (600-700 rounds/min).
It was a redesign of the Maschinengewehr 08 machine gun (itself an adaptation of the Maxim gun) system intended for use on aircraft and zeppelins, that used a toggle action that broke upwards rather than downwards opposite the MG 08, making for a much more compact receiver.

M1917 Browning machine gun

Colt M/29Browning M1917M1917
Like the original MG 08, because of transportation difficulties, the M1917 Browning machine gun and other machine guns slowly replaced the Type 24 for the NRA after the Chinese Civil War.
At 47 lbs, it was much lighter than contemporary Maxim type guns such as the first 137 lb German Maschinengewehr 08 (08/15 model: 43 lbs and the British Vickers machine gun, while still being highly reliable.

Halberstadt D.II

Halberstadt D.IIIAviatik D.IHalberstadt
The lMG 08 and LMG 08/15 guns were always used on fixed-wing aircraft, as fixed forward-aimed synchronized firing ordnance initially in single mounts for Germany's 1915-16 era Fokker Eindecker and Halberstadt D.II "scout" single-seat fighters, and by 1916 in dual mounts, first appearing on the mass-produced examples of Robert Thelen's Albatros D.I and D.II fighters in late 1916, and singly on German "C-class" armed two-seat observation aircraft for synchronized forward-firing armament.
A single synchronised lMG 08 "Spandau" machine gun fired through the propeller arc.

Muzzle booster

recoil boosterNielsen device
Because of the important physical reinforcement provided by the cooling jacket on the MG 08 series of guns, the excessive slotting of the initial model of the air-cooled lMG 08 — amounting to slightly over 50% of the total area of the cylindrical cooling jacket's original circumferential sheetmetal — rendered the gun as too fragile, to the point of making it impossible to fit the muzzle booster that the water-cooled infantry MG 08 guns could be fitted with.
The primary German machine gun of WWI was the Maxim-based MG 08, a water-cooled heavy machine gun which used a muzzle booster to increase rate of fire and reliability.

Fokker Eindecker fighters

Fokker EindeckerFokker EindekkerFokker ''Eindecker
A lightened air-cooled version of the original water-cooled rectangular pattern-receiver MG 08 infantry automatic ordnance, the lMG 08, was developed by the Spandau arsenal as a rigidly mounted aircraft machine gun and went into production in 1915, in single-gun mounts, for use on the E.I through the E.III production versions of the Fokker Eindecker.
A few E.IIIs were experimentally armed with two 7.92 mm (.312 in) calibre lMG 08 "Spandau" machine guns, while most E.IIIs and the production E.I through E.III Eindecker models used only one of the same model.

Albatros D.I

AlbatrosAlbatros D seriesAlbatros L 15
The lMG 08s were later used in pairs by the time of the introduction of the Fokker D.III and Albatros D.I biplane fighters in 1916, as fixed and synchronized cowling guns firing through the propeller.
The additional power of the Mercedes (Daimler) engine enabled twin fixed Spandau machine-guns to be fitted without any loss in performance.

Spandau Arsenal

Potzdam armorySpandau Royal Arsenal
Pre-war production was by Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken (DWM) in Berlin and by the government Spandau arsenal (so the gun was often referred to as a Spandau MG 08).

National Revolutionary Army

Chinese Nationalist ArmyNationalist ArmyNRA
The Type 24 Heavy machine gun, first introduced to the National Revolutionary Army in 1935, designed to replace the original MG 08.
Heavy machine guns were mainly locally-made Type 24 water-cooled Maxim guns (which were based on the commercial version of the German MG08), and Type Triple-Ten M1917 Browning machine guns chambered for the standard 8mm Mauser round.

Hanyang Arsenal

Hanyang
They were usually made in the Hanyang Arsenal.

Bergmann MG 15nA machine gun

Bergmann MG15 nA GunBergmann MG 15 and MG 15 NAMG 15nA
The major development of the weapon came early in 1916 when the Bergmann MG 15 was converted into a second variation to mirror the development of the Maxim MG 08/15.

MG 18 TuF

DWM MG 18 TuFMaxim MG 18 TuFMaxim MG.18
Designated MG 18 TuF, it was issued in limited numbers in late World War I.
The MG 18 was essentially a scaled-up MG 08 heavy-machine gun, the MG 08 itself being a licensed derivative of the Maxim Gun.

Schwarzlose machine gun

Schwarzlose MG M.07/12SchwarzloseSchwarzlose M.07/12
While its water-cooled barrel gave it an appearance broadly resembling the family of Maxim-derived machine-guns (such as the British Vickers and the German Maschinengewehr 08), internally the Schwarzlose was of a much simpler design, which made the weapon comparatively inexpensive to manufacture.

Vickers machine gun

VickersVickers gunVickers medium machine gun
Several sets of louvred slots were cut into the barrel jacket to aid air cooling, a better solution than what had initially been attempted with the 1915-vintage lMG 08 German aircraft ordnance.

Heavy machine gun

heavy machine gunsHMGmachine guns
The Maxim was the most ubiquitous machine gun of World War I, variants of which were fielded simultaneously by three separate warring nations (Germany with the MG 08, Britain with the Vickers, and Russia with the PM M1910).

German Army (German Empire)

German ArmyImperial German ArmyArmy
The Maschinengewehr 08, or MG 08, was the German Army's standard machine gun in World War I and is an adaptation of Hiram S. Maxim's original 1884 Maxim gun.

Machine gun

machine gunsmachine-gunmachinegun
The Maschinengewehr 08, or MG 08, was the German Army's standard machine gun in World War I and is an adaptation of Hiram S. Maxim's original 1884 Maxim gun.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
The Maschinengewehr 08, or MG 08, was the German Army's standard machine gun in World War I and is an adaptation of Hiram S. Maxim's original 1884 Maxim gun.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
The MG 08 served during World War II as a heavy machine gun in many German infantry divisions, although by the end of the war it had mostly been relegated to second-rate fortress units.

7.92×57mm Mauser

7.92 mm7.92×57mm8×57mm IS
The gun used 250-round fabric belts of 7.92×57mm ammunition.

Water cooling

water-cooledcooling waterWater cooled
It was water-cooled, using a jacket around the barrel that held approximately 3.7 L of water.

Berlin

Berlin, GermanyState of BerlinGerman capital
Pre-war production was by Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken (DWM) in Berlin and by the government Spandau arsenal (so the gun was often referred to as a Spandau MG 08).

Sarbinowo, Gmina Dębno

SarbinowoZorndorf
The German Rifle Commission began firing tests of the Maxim gun at Zorndorf in 1889.