MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory

Project MACMIT Artificial Intelligence LaboratoryComputer Science and Artificial Intelligence LaboratoryMIT AI LabLaboratory for Computer ScienceCSAILArtificial Intelligence LaboratoryAI LabMIT Laboratory for Computer ScienceMIT Artificial Intelligence Lab
MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) is a research institute at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology formed by the 2003 merger of the Laboratory for Computer Science and the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.wikipedia
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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MITM.I.T.Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) is a research institute at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology formed by the 2003 merger of the Laboratory for Computer Science and the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.
In addition to developing the predecessors to modern computing and networking technologies, students, staff, and faculty members at Project MAC, the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, and the Tech Model Railroad Club wrote some of the earliest interactive computer video games like Spacewar! and created much of modern hacker slang and culture.

Ray and Maria Stata Center

Stata CenterDreyfoos TowerMaria Stata
Housed within the Stata Center, CSAIL is the largest on-campus laboratory as measured by research scope and membership.
Research labs and offices of the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL), the Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems (LIDS), as well as the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy (Course 24) occupy the upper floors.

World Wide Web Consortium

W3CW3C Recommendationrecommendation
In addition, CSAIL hosts the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
It was founded at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Computer Science (MIT/LCS) with support from the European Commission, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), which had pioneered the ARPANET, one of the predecessors to the Internet.

DARPA

Defense Advanced Research Projects AgencyAdvanced Research Projects AgencyARPA
On July 1, 1963, Project MAC (the Project on Mathematics and Computation, later backronymed to Multiple Access Computer, Machine Aided Cognitions, or Man and Computer) was launched with a $2 million grant from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).
Concerning information processing, DARPA made great progress, initially through its support of the development of time-sharing (all modern operating systems rely on concepts invented for the Multics system, developed by a cooperation among Bell Labs, General Electric and MIT, which DARPA supported by funding Project MAC at MIT with an initial two-million-dollar grant).

Hacker culture

hackerhackershacking
An "AI Group" including Marvin Minsky (the director), John McCarthy (inventor of Lisp) and a talented community of computer programmers was incorporated into the newly formed Project MAC.
Therefore, the hacker culture originally emerged in academia in the 1960s around the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)'s Tech Model Railroad Club (TMRC) and MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.

Incompatible Timesharing System

ITSITS operating systemIncompatible Time-sharing System
In the 1960s - 1970s the AI Group shared a computer room with a computer (initially a PDP-6, and later a PDP-10) for which they built a time-sharing operating system called Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS).
Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) is a time-sharing operating system developed principally by the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, with help from Project MAC.

Marvin Minsky

MinskyMarvin L. Minskyartificial intelligence
An "AI Group" including Marvin Minsky (the director), John McCarthy (inventor of Lisp) and a talented community of computer programmers was incorporated into the newly formed Project MAC.
He joined the staff at MIT Lincoln Laboratory in 1958, and a year later he and John McCarthy initiated what is, named the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.

PDP-10

DECsystem-10DEC PDP-10DEC-10
In the 1960s - 1970s the AI Group shared a computer room with a computer (initially a PDP-6, and later a PDP-10) for which they built a time-sharing operating system called Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS).
The PDP-10 is the machine that made time-sharing common, and this and other features made it a common fixture in many university computing facilities and research labs during the 1970s, the most notable being Harvard University's Aiken Computation Laboratory, MIT's AI Lab and Project MAC, Stanford's SAIL, Computer Center Corporation (CCC), ETH (ZIR), and Carnegie Mellon University.

Project Genie

GENIE time-sharing system
Its contemporaries included Project Genie at Berkeley, the [[Stanford University centers and institutes#Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory|Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory]], and (somewhat later) University of Southern California's (USC's) Information Sciences Institute.
The project was a smaller counterpart to MIT's Project MAC.

Compatible Time-Sharing System

CTSSCompatible Time Sharing System
To this end, Corbató brought the first computer time-sharing system, Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS), with him from the MIT Computation Center, using the DARPA funding to purchase an IBM 7094 for research use.
During part of this time, MIT's influential Project MAC also ran a CTSS service, but the system did not spread beyond these two sites.

Multics

Multics operating systemMultics project
One of the early focuses of Project MAC would be the development of a successor to CTSS, Multics, which was to be the first high availability computer system, developed as a part of an industry consortium including General Electric and Bell Laboratories.
Originally it was a cooperative project led by MIT (Project MAC with Fernando Corbató) along with General Electric and Bell Labs.

Lisp (programming language)

LispLisp programming languageLisp 1.5
An "AI Group" including Marvin Minsky (the director), John McCarthy (inventor of Lisp) and a talented community of computer programmers was incorporated into the newly formed Project MAC.

Lisp Machines

Lisp Machines, Inc.Lisp Machines Inc.Lisp Machines Incorporated
Among much else, the AI Lab led to the invention of Lisp machines and their attempted commercialization by two companies in the 1980s: Symbolics and Lisp Machines Inc.
Lisp Machines, Inc. was a company formed in 1979 by Richard Greenblatt of MIT's Artificial Intelligence Laboratory to build Lisp machines.

Emacs

GNU EmacsEmacs pinkyEmacsWiki
Talented programmers such as Richard Stallman, who used TECO to develop EMACS, flourished in the AI Lab during this time.
Emacs development began during the 1970s at the MIT AI Lab, whose PDP-6 and PDP-10 computers used the Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) operating system that featured a default line editor known as Tape Editor and Corrector (TECO).

Richard Stallman

Richard M. StallmanStallmanRichard Matthew Stallman
Talented programmers such as Richard Stallman, who used TECO to develop EMACS, flourished in the AI Lab during this time.
In 1971, near the end of his first year at Harvard, he became a programmer at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, and became a regular in the hacker community, where he was usually known by his initials, RMS, which he used in his computer accounts.

Symbolics

symbolics.comSymbolics Inc.Symbolics keyboard
Among much else, the AI Lab led to the invention of Lisp machines and their attempted commercialization by two companies in the 1980s: Symbolics and Lisp Machines Inc.
Symbolics was a spinoff from the MIT AI Lab, one of two companies to be founded by AI Lab staffers and associated hackers for the purpose of manufacturing Lisp machines.

J. C. R. Licklider

J.C.R. LickliderJoseph Carl Robnett LickliderDr. J. C. R. Licklider
The program manager responsible for the DARPA grant was J. C. R. Licklider, who had previously been at MIT conducting research in RLE, and would later succeed Fano as director of Project MAC.
During this period, he concurrently served as director of Project MAC until 1970.

John McCarthy (computer scientist)

John McCarthyMcCarthyMcCarthy, John
An "AI Group" including Marvin Minsky (the director), John McCarthy (inventor of Lisp) and a talented community of computer programmers was incorporated into the newly formed Project MAC.
He helped to motivate the creation of Project MAC at MIT when he worked there, and at Stanford University, he helped establish the Stanford AI Laboratory, for many years a friendly rival to Project MAC.

Technology Square (Cambridge, Massachusetts)

Technology SquareAlexandria Technology SquareTech Square
From 1963 to 2004, Project MAC, LCS, the AI Lab, and CSAIL had their offices at 545 Technology Square, taking over more and more floors of the building over the years.
MIT's Project MAC (1963-2004) and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (1970-2004) and many innovative companies and organizations have had offices at Tech Square, including Polaroid, IBM's Cambridge Scientific Center, General Electric's and then Honeywell's Cambridge Information Systems Laboratory, NASA's Electronics Research Center, Keydata Corporation, the National Bureau of Economic Research, Computer Corporation of America, Draper Laboratory, Forrester Research, the World Wide Web Consortium, and Akamai.

Daniela L. Rus

Daniela RusProf. Daniela Rus
Daniela L. Rus is a roboticist, the Director of the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL), and Andrew and Erna Viterbi Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

TECO (text editor)

TECOText Editor and CorrectorTape Editor and Corrector
Talented programmers such as Richard Stallman, who used TECO to develop EMACS, flourished in the AI Lab during this time.
TECO became more widely used following a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-6 mainframe implementation developed at MIT's Project MAC in 1964.

Tim Berners-Lee

Sir Tim Berners-LeeTim Berners LeeTimothy Berners-Lee
He is also the founder of the World Wide Web Foundation and is a senior researcher and holder of the 3Com founders chair at the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL).

Robert Fano

FanoR. M. FanoRobert M. Fano
Project MAC's original director was Robert Fano of MIT's Research Laboratory of Electronics (RLE).
From 1963 until 1968 Fano served as the founding director of MIT's Project MAC, which evolved to become what is now known as the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.

Regina Barzilay

Regina Barzilay (born 1970) is a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a member of MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.

IBM 7090

IBM 709470907094
To this end, Corbató brought the first computer time-sharing system, Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS), with him from the MIT Computation Center, using the DARPA funding to purchase an IBM 7094 for research use.