MMR vaccine and autism

MMR vaccine controversyMMR vaccinecontroversyconcernscontroversialfraudulent research paperMMR scarenow-discredited claimnow-discredited link to autisma causal link between vaccines and autism
Claims of a link between the MMR vaccine and autism have been extensively investigated and found to be false.wikipedia
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Lancet MMR autism fraud

discredited claims about vaccines and autismfraudulent 1998 paperfraudulent work
The link was first suggested in the early 1990s and came to public notice largely as a result of the 1998 Lancet MMR autism fraud, characterised as "perhaps the most damaging medical hoax of the last 100 years".
The paper, authored by Andrew Wakefield and eleven coauthors, claimed to link the MMR vaccine to colitis and autism spectrum disorders.

Autism spectrum

autism spectrum disorderautisticautism spectrum disorders
The fraudulent research paper authored by Andrew Wakefield and published in The Lancet claimed to link the vaccine to colitis and autism spectrum disorders.
In 1998 Andrew Wakefield led a fraudulent study that suggested that the MMR vaccine may cause autism.

The Lancet

LancetLancet OncologyThe Lancet Oncology
The fraudulent research paper authored by Andrew Wakefield and published in The Lancet claimed to link the vaccine to colitis and autism spectrum disorders.
The Lancet was criticized after it published a paper in 1998 in which the authors suggested a link between the MMR vaccine and autism.

Scientific consensus

consensusGateway Belief Modelscholarly consensus
The scientific consensus is that there is no link between the MMR vaccine and autism and that the vaccine's benefits greatly outweigh its potential risks.
Popular or political debate on subjects that are controversial within the public sphere but not necessarily controversial within the scientific community may invoke scientific consensus: note such topics as evolution, climate change, or the lack of a link between MMR vaccinations and autism.

Brian Deer

An investigation by journalist Brian Deer found that Wakefield, the author of the original research paper linking the vaccine to autism, had multiple undeclared conflicts of interest, had manipulated evidence, and had broken other ethical codes.
In a series of reports between 2004 and 2010, Deer investigated concerns over the MMR vaccine that arose with the publication in 1998 of a research paper in the medical journal The Lancet written by Andrew Wakefield, and his colleagues.

Andrew Wakefield

The fraudulent research paper authored by Andrew Wakefield and published in The Lancet claimed to link the vaccine to colitis and autism spectrum disorders.

Private Eye

Neasden F.C.Baldy" PevsnerDave Spart
Neil Cameron, a historian who specializes in the history of science, writing for the Montreal Gazette, labeled the controversy a "failure of journalism" that resulted in unnecessary deaths, saying that: 1) The Lancet should not have published a study based on "statistically meaningless results" from only 12 cases; 2) the anti-vaccination crusade was continued by the satirical Private Eye magazine; and 3) a grapevine of worried parents and "nincompoop" celebrities fueled the widespread fears.
The magazine has occasionally published special editions dedicated to the reporting of particular events, such as government inadequacy over the 2001 foot and mouth outbreak, the conviction in 2001 of Abdelbaset al-Megrahi for the 1988 Lockerbie bombing (an incident regularly covered since by "In the Back"), and the purported MMR vaccine controversy (since shown to be medical fraud by Andrew Wakefield) in 2002.

National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program

vaccine courtU.S. federal courtVaccine Injury Compensation Court
The omnibus autism proceeding (OAP) is a coordinated proceeding before the Office of Special Masters of the U.S. Court of Federal Claims—commonly called the vaccine court.
Many studies have failed to conclude that there is a causal link between autism spectrum disorders and vaccines, and the current scientific consensus is that routine childhood vaccines are not linked to the development of autism.

Vaccine hesitancy

anti-vaccinationanti-vaccinationistanti-vaccine
A 2009 review of studies on links between vaccines and autism discussed the MMR vaccine controversy as one of three main hypotheses that epidemiological and biological studies failed to support.
Later 20th-century events included the 1982 broadcast of DPT: Vaccine Roulette, which sparked debate over the DPT vaccine, and the 1998 publication of a fraudulent academic article by Andrew Wakefield which sparked the MMR vaccine controversy.

Jenny McCarthy

The Jenny McCarthy ShowAmy McCarthyJenny
In the United States, Jenny McCarthy blamed vaccinations for her son Evan's disorders and leveraged her celebrity status to warn parents of a link between vaccines and autism.
In 2008, she appeared on a Larry King Live special dedicated to the subject and argued that vaccines can trigger autism.

Colitis

pseudomembranous colitisinfectious colitisbacterial colitis
The fraudulent research paper authored by Andrew Wakefield and published in The Lancet claimed to link the vaccine to colitis and autism spectrum disorders.

Measles

Rubeolameasles encephalitisAcute Measles encephalitis
Promotion of the claimed link, which continues in anti-vaccination propaganda despite being refuted, has led to an increase in the incidence of measles and mumps, resulting in deaths and serious permanent injuries.

Mumps

Mumps meningoencephalitisCongenital mumpsMumps encephalitis
Promotion of the claimed link, which continues in anti-vaccination propaganda despite being refuted, has led to an increase in the incidence of measles and mumps, resulting in deaths and serious permanent injuries.

Epidemiology

epidemiologistepidemiologicalepidemiologists
Following the initial claims in 1998, multiple large epidemiological studies were undertaken.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CDCCenters for Disease ControlCenter for Disease Control
Reviews of the evidence by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Institute of Medicine of the US National Academy of Sciences, the UK National Health Service, and the Cochrane Library all found no link between the MMR vaccine and autism.

American Academy of Pediatrics

AAPAmerican Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)Bicycle Safety Camp
Reviews of the evidence by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Institute of Medicine of the US National Academy of Sciences, the UK National Health Service, and the Cochrane Library all found no link between the MMR vaccine and autism.

National Academy of Medicine

Institute of MedicineInstitute of Medicine of the National AcademiesNational Institute of Medicine
Reviews of the evidence by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Institute of Medicine of the US National Academy of Sciences, the UK National Health Service, and the Cochrane Library all found no link between the MMR vaccine and autism.

National Academy of Sciences

United States National Academy of SciencesNational Academy of ScienceU.S. National Academy of Sciences
Reviews of the evidence by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Institute of Medicine of the US National Academy of Sciences, the UK National Health Service, and the Cochrane Library all found no link between the MMR vaccine and autism.

National Health Service

NHSNational Health Service (NHS)National Health Services
Reviews of the evidence by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Institute of Medicine of the US National Academy of Sciences, the UK National Health Service, and the Cochrane Library all found no link between the MMR vaccine and autism.

Cochrane Library

Cochrane ReviewCochraneCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Reviews of the evidence by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Institute of Medicine of the US National Academy of Sciences, the UK National Health Service, and the Cochrane Library all found no link between the MMR vaccine and autism.

Conflict of interest

conflicts of interestconflict-of-interestconflict of interests
An investigation by journalist Brian Deer found that Wakefield, the author of the original research paper linking the vaccine to autism, had multiple undeclared conflicts of interest, had manipulated evidence, and had broken other ethical codes.

Richard Horton (editor)

Richard Horton
The Lancet paper was partially retracted in 2004 and fully retracted in 2010, when Lancets editor-in-chief Richard Horton described it as "utterly false" and said that the journal had been deceived.

General Medical Council

GMCstruck offMedical Register
Wakefield was found guilty by the General Medical Council of serious professional misconduct in May 2010 and was struck off the Medical Register, meaning he could no longer practise as a physician in the UK.

The BMJ

British Medical JournalBMJThe British Medical Journal
In 2011, Deer provided further information on Wakefield's improper research practices to the British Medical Journal, which in a signed editorial described the original paper as fraudulent.