MON 810

MON810
The MON 810 corn is a genetically modified maize used around the world.wikipedia
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Genetically modified maize

genetically modified cornBt cornBt maize
The MON 810 corn is a genetically modified maize used around the world.
Approved Bt genes include single and stacked (event names bracketed) configurations of: Cry1A.105 (MON89034), CryIAb (MON810), CryIF (1507), Cry2Ab (MON89034), Cry3Bb1 (MON863 and MON88017), Cry34Ab1 (59122), Cry35Ab1 (59122), mCry3A (MIR604), and Vip3A (MIR162), in both corn and cotton.

Monsanto

Monsanto CompanyCalgeneMonsanto Industrial Chemicals Co.
It is a Zea mays line known as YieldGard from the company Monsanto.
Monsanto subsequently developed Bt maize (MON 802, MON 809, MON 863, MON 810), Bt soybean and Bt cotton.

MON 863

MON863
* MON 863
Unlike MON 810, Bt 11, and Bt 176 which each produce a modified Cry1Ab, MON 863 instead produces a modified Cry3Bb1 toxin and contains nptII, a marker gene for antibiotic resistance.

Craig Roberts Stapleton

Craig StapletonCraig R. Stapleton
As revealed in the WikiLeaks cables, after France banned the variety, Craig Stapleton, the US ambassador to France recommended that "we calibrate a target retaliation list that causes some pain across the EU".
In 2007 he recommended to the Bush administration that they wage a trade war on European crops, due to European resistance to genetically modified foods such as MON 810, thus denying a key US export.

Genetically modified food in Europe

GMO regulation in the European Unionblocked genetically modified foodmoratorium on the culture of genetically modified organisms
In 1998, the use of MON810, a Bt expressing maize conferring resistance to the European corn borer, was approved for commercial cultivation in Europe.

Genetically modified food controversies

controversiespublic concernsgenetically modified food
In 2007, 2009, and 2011, Gilles-Éric Séralini published re-analysis studies that used data from Monsanto rat-feeding experiments for three modified maize varieties (insect-resistant MON 863 and MON 810 and glyphosate-resistant NK603).

List of varieties of genetically modified maize

MON 810 is an Insect resistant maize expressing the CryIAc protein for lepidopteran insect pest protection. Under license from Monsanto.

2014 in France

2014
5 May – The Senate approves a ban on the cultivation of MON810, a type of genetically modified corn developed by American agribusiness firm Monsanto.

Gilles-Éric Séralini

In 2009, the Séralini lab published another study, which re-analyzed toxicity data for glyphosate resistant, MON 810 and MON 863 strains, concluded that they showed liver, kidney and heart damages in the rats.

Detection of genetically modified organisms

detect and identify GMOsassess the presence of genetically modified organisms
One GM maize variety now awaiting a decision by the European Commission, MON863 x MON810 x NK603, has three stacked traits.

Contents of the United States diplomatic cables leak

Content from the United States diplomatic cables leakleaked, classified U.S. State Department cablecables leak
In a 2007 cable, the US ambassador to France, Craig Roberts Stapleton, recommended "retaliation" against European "targets" in order to defend Monsanto sales of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Europe, where controversy over GMOs is strong. In the cable, the French decision to suspend Monsanto's MON 810 patented seed product line was described as "damaging" and not "science-based". The French government's "apparent recommitment" to the precautionary principle written in the French Constitution was also referred to as "damaging". In the cable, Stapleton stated, "Country team Paris recommends that we calibrate a target retaliation list that causes some pain across the EU since this is a collective responsibility, but that also focuses in part on the worst culprits. The list should be measured rather than vicious and must be sustainable over the long term, since we should not expect an early victory."

Mon

Genetically modified organism

genetically modifiedgenetically modified organismsGMO
This plant is a genetically modified organism (GMO) designed to combat crop loss due to insects.

DNA

double-stranded DNAdsDNAsingle-stranded DNA
There is an inserted gene in the DNA of MON810 which allows the plant to make a protein that harms insects that try to eat it. The inserted gene is from the Bacillus thuringiensis which produces the Bt toxin that is poisonous to insects in the order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), including the European Corn Borer.

Protein

proteinsprotein synthesisproteinaceous
There is an inserted gene in the DNA of MON810 which allows the plant to make a protein that harms insects that try to eat it. The inserted gene is from the Bacillus thuringiensis which produces the Bt toxin that is poisonous to insects in the order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), including the European Corn Borer.

Bacillus thuringiensis

BtB. thuringiensisB . thuringiensis
There is an inserted gene in the DNA of MON810 which allows the plant to make a protein that harms insects that try to eat it. The inserted gene is from the Bacillus thuringiensis which produces the Bt toxin that is poisonous to insects in the order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), including the European Corn Borer.

Lepidoptera

lepidopteranbutterflies and mothsbutterflies
There is an inserted gene in the DNA of MON810 which allows the plant to make a protein that harms insects that try to eat it. The inserted gene is from the Bacillus thuringiensis which produces the Bt toxin that is poisonous to insects in the order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), including the European Corn Borer.

European corn borer

Ostrinia nubilalisO. nubilalis
There is an inserted gene in the DNA of MON810 which allows the plant to make a protein that harms insects that try to eat it. The inserted gene is from the Bacillus thuringiensis which produces the Bt toxin that is poisonous to insects in the order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), including the European Corn Borer.

Plasmid

plasmidsepisomeplasmid vector
Monsanto’s corn line MON810 is produced by ballistically transforming another corn line with a plasmid, PV-ZMCT10.

Cauliflower mosaic virus

CaMVCauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV)CaMV35S
This plasmid has a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and hsp70 maize intron sequences which drive the expression of the Cry1Ab gene.

Hsp70

heat shock protein 70Hsp-70DnaK
This plasmid has a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and hsp70 maize intron sequences which drive the expression of the Cry1Ab gene.

Cell membrane

plasma membranemembranecell membranes
The gene then codes for delta endotoxins (Cry proteins) which are toxins that are very potent and provoke lesions in the cell membrane causing cell death These produced Bt toxins bind to certain localized sites on the epithelium of the midgut of insects.

Cell death

diedeathprogrammed death
The gene then codes for delta endotoxins (Cry proteins) which are toxins that are very potent and provoke lesions in the cell membrane causing cell death These produced Bt toxins bind to certain localized sites on the epithelium of the midgut of insects.

Epithelium

epithelialepithelial cellsepithelial cell
The gene then codes for delta endotoxins (Cry proteins) which are toxins that are very potent and provoke lesions in the cell membrane causing cell death These produced Bt toxins bind to certain localized sites on the epithelium of the midgut of insects.

Midgut

mesenteronmidgutsmidgut tissues
The gene then codes for delta endotoxins (Cry proteins) which are toxins that are very potent and provoke lesions in the cell membrane causing cell death These produced Bt toxins bind to certain localized sites on the epithelium of the midgut of insects.