MON 810

MON810
The MON 810 corn is a genetically modified maize used around the world.wikipedia
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Genetically modified maize

genetically modified cornBt cornBt maize
The MON 810 corn is a genetically modified maize used around the world.
Approved Bt genes include single and stacked (event names bracketed) configurations of: Cry1A.105 (MON89034), CryIAb (MON810), CryIF (1507), Cry2Ab (MON89034), Cry3Bb1 (MON863 and MON88017), Cry34Ab1 (59122), Cry35Ab1 (59122), mCry3A (MIR604), and Vip3A (MIR162), in both corn and cotton.

Monsanto

Monsanto CompanyCalgeneGenuity
It is a Zea mays line known as YieldGard from the company Monsanto.
Monsanto subsequently developed Bt maize (MON 802, MON 809, MON 863, MON 810), Bt soybean and Bt cotton.

Craig Roberts Stapleton

Craig StapletonCraig R. Stapleton
As revealed in the WikiLeaks cables, after France banned the variety, Craig Stapleton, the US ambassador to France recommended that "we calibrate a target retaliation list that causes some pain across the EU".
In 2007 he recommended to the Bush administration that they wage a trade war on European crops, due to European resistance to genetically modified foods such as MON 810, thus denying a key US export.

Genetically modified organism

genetically modified organismsGMOgenetically modified
This plant is a genetically modified organism (GMO) designed to combat crop loss due to insects.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
There is an inserted gene in the DNA of MON810 which allows the plant to make a protein that harms insects that try to eat it. The inserted gene is from the Bacillus thuringiensis which produces the Bt toxin that is poisonous to insects in the order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), including the European Corn Borer.

Protein

proteinsprotein synthesisproteinaceous
There is an inserted gene in the DNA of MON810 which allows the plant to make a protein that harms insects that try to eat it. The inserted gene is from the Bacillus thuringiensis which produces the Bt toxin that is poisonous to insects in the order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), including the European Corn Borer.

Bacillus thuringiensis

BtB. thuringiensisB . thuringiensis
There is an inserted gene in the DNA of MON810 which allows the plant to make a protein that harms insects that try to eat it. The inserted gene is from the Bacillus thuringiensis which produces the Bt toxin that is poisonous to insects in the order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), including the European Corn Borer.

Lepidoptera

butterflies and mothslepidopteranlepidopterans
There is an inserted gene in the DNA of MON810 which allows the plant to make a protein that harms insects that try to eat it. The inserted gene is from the Bacillus thuringiensis which produces the Bt toxin that is poisonous to insects in the order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), including the European Corn Borer.

European corn borer

Ostrinia nubilalisEuropean corn borersO. nubilalis
There is an inserted gene in the DNA of MON810 which allows the plant to make a protein that harms insects that try to eat it. The inserted gene is from the Bacillus thuringiensis which produces the Bt toxin that is poisonous to insects in the order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), including the European Corn Borer.

Plasmid

plasmidsepisomeplasmid vector
Monsanto’s corn line MON810 is produced by ballistically transforming another corn line with a plasmid, PV-ZMCT10.

Cauliflower mosaic virus

CaMVCaMV35SCauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV)
This plasmid has a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and hsp70 maize intron sequences which drive the expression of the Cry1Ab gene.

Hsp70

heat shock protein 70DnaKHsp-70
This plasmid has a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and hsp70 maize intron sequences which drive the expression of the Cry1Ab gene.

Cell membrane

plasma membranemembranecell membranes
The gene then codes for delta endotoxins (Cry proteins) which are toxins that are very potent and provoke lesions in the cell membrane causing cell death These produced Bt toxins bind to certain localized sites on the epithelium of the midgut of insects.

Cell death

diedeathcell killing
The gene then codes for delta endotoxins (Cry proteins) which are toxins that are very potent and provoke lesions in the cell membrane causing cell death These produced Bt toxins bind to certain localized sites on the epithelium of the midgut of insects.

Epithelium

epithelialepithelial cellsepithelial cell
The gene then codes for delta endotoxins (Cry proteins) which are toxins that are very potent and provoke lesions in the cell membrane causing cell death These produced Bt toxins bind to certain localized sites on the epithelium of the midgut of insects.

Midgut

mesenteronmidgut tissuesmidguts
The gene then codes for delta endotoxins (Cry proteins) which are toxins that are very potent and provoke lesions in the cell membrane causing cell death These produced Bt toxins bind to certain localized sites on the epithelium of the midgut of insects.

Delta endotoxin

cry proteinδ-endotoxinscry toxin
The gene then codes for delta endotoxins (Cry proteins) which are toxins that are very potent and provoke lesions in the cell membrane causing cell death These produced Bt toxins bind to certain localized sites on the epithelium of the midgut of insects.

Signal transduction

signaling pathwayssignaling cascadesignal transduction pathways
The receptors are important for binding the toxic protein and starting the signal cascade, but the exact mechanism of these toxins is not well understood.

European Food Safety Authority

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)EFSA European Food Safety Authority
However, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reviewed this re-analysis and concluded that the differences observed were within a normal range for control rats and deemed the statistical methods used inappropriate.

Séralini affair

2013his studymajor controversy
Similar criticisms have been levelled at later work by Séralini involving rats he asserted to have developed cancer from consumption of genetically modified produce; see Séralini affair.

Pesticide toxicity to bees

pesticidesbee health issuesbees
No evidence exists to suggest that bees are harmed by the Bt Protein, however prior to research implicating neonictinoid pesticides (usage of which is in fact reduced by planting of naturally pesticidal Bt crops ), colony collapse disorder was occasionally blamed on modified crops.

Colony collapse disorder

disappearance of beesbee colony collapse disorderbees have become extinct
No evidence exists to suggest that bees are harmed by the Bt Protein, however prior to research implicating neonictinoid pesticides (usage of which is in fact reduced by planting of naturally pesticidal Bt crops ), colony collapse disorder was occasionally blamed on modified crops.

Systematic review

systematic reviewsreviewsystematic literature review
A 2010 paper (systematic review) by Agnes Ricroch et al. in the journal Transgenic Research, which reviewed several previously published meta-analyses and recent studies, concluded that the German decision to ban the cultivation of MON 810 was "scientifically unjustified."

Transgenic Research

A 2010 paper (systematic review) by Agnes Ricroch et al. in the journal Transgenic Research, which reviewed several previously published meta-analyses and recent studies, concluded that the German decision to ban the cultivation of MON 810 was "scientifically unjustified."

Meta-analysis

meta-analysesmeta analysismeta-analytic
A 2010 paper (systematic review) by Agnes Ricroch et al. in the journal Transgenic Research, which reviewed several previously published meta-analyses and recent studies, concluded that the German decision to ban the cultivation of MON 810 was "scientifically unjustified."