MOS Technology 6502

A MOS Technology 6502 processor in a DIP-40 plastic package. The four-digit date code indicates it was made in the 45th week (November) of 1985.
Motorola 6800 demonstration board built by Chuck Peddle and John Buchanan in 1974
A 1973 MOS Technology advertisement highlighting their custom integrated circuit capabilities
MOS Technology MCS6501, in white ceramic package, made in late August 1975
Introductory advertisement for the MOS Technology MCS6501 and MCS6502 microprocessors
MOS Technology MCS6502, in white ceramic package, manufactured in late 1975
The May 1976 datasheet omitted the 6501 microprocessor that was in the [[:File:MCS650X Datasheet Aug 1975 cover.jpg|August 1975]] version.
6502 processor die. The regular section at the top is the instruction decoding ROM, the seemingly random section in the center is the control logic, and at the bottom are the registers (right) and the ALU (left). The data bus connections are along the lower right, and the address bus along the bottom and lower left.
6502 pin configuration (40-pin DIP)
6502 processor die with drawn in NMOS-transistors and labels hinting at the functionality of the 6502's components
Acorn Atom
Acorn Electron
Apple I
Apple II
Apple IIe
Atari 2600
Atari 5200
Atari 7800
Atari 800
Atari Lynx
BBC Master
BBC Micro
Commodore PET
Commodore VIC-20
Commodore 64
Commodore 128
Family Computer (Famicom)
Nintendo Entertainment System
Ohio Scientific Challenger 4P
Orao
Oric-1
Oric Atmos
Tamagotchi digital pet<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.kwartzlab.ca/2013/05/code-execution-tamagotchi/|title=Code Execution on a Tamagotchi|date=7 May 2013|website=kwartzlab.ca|access-date=2018-12-23|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180831185727/https://www.kwartzlab.ca/2013/05/code-execution-tamagotchi/|archive-date=2018-08-31|url-status=dead}}</ref>
TurboGrafx-16
Commodore 64

8-bit microprocessor that was designed by a small team led by Chuck Peddle for MOS Technology.

- MOS Technology 6502
A MOS Technology 6502 processor in a DIP-40 plastic package. The four-digit date code indicates it was made in the 45th week (November) of 1985.

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MOS Technology

Semiconductor design and fabrication company based in Audubon, Pennsylvania, in the United States.

Semiconductor design and fabrication company based in Audubon, Pennsylvania, in the United States.

A 1973 MOS Technology advertisement highlighting their custom integrated circuit capabilities
Image of the circuit board of a Commodore 64 showing some important MOS Technology circuits: the 6510 CPU (long chip, lower left) and the 6581 SID (right). The production week/year (WWYY) of each chip is given below its name.

It is most famous for its 6502 microprocessor and various designs for Commodore International's range of home computers.

Block diagram of a basic computer with uniprocessor CPU. Black lines indicate data flow, whereas red lines indicate control flow. Arrows indicate the direction of flow.

8-bit computing

In computer architecture, 8-bit integers or other data units are those that are 8 bits wide (1 octet).

In computer architecture, 8-bit integers or other data units are those that are 8 bits wide (1 octet).

Block diagram of a basic computer with uniprocessor CPU. Black lines indicate data flow, whereas red lines indicate control flow. Arrows indicate the direction of flow.

The Z80 and the MOS Technology 6502 8-bit CPUs were widely used in home computers and second- and third-generation game consoles of the 1970s and 1980s.

Peddle in 2013

Chuck Peddle

Peddle in 2013

Charles Ingerham Peddle (November 25, 1937 – December 15, 2019) was an American electrical engineer best known as the main designer of the MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor, the KIM-1 single-board computer, and its successor, the Commodore PET personal computer, both based on the 6502.

Apple II in a common 1977 configuration, with a 9" monochrome monitor, game paddles, and a Red Book-recommended Panasonic RQ-309DS cassette deck

Apple II

8-bit home computer and one of the world's first highly successful mass-produced microcomputer products.

8-bit home computer and one of the world's first highly successful mass-produced microcomputer products.

Apple II in a common 1977 configuration, with a 9" monochrome monitor, game paddles, and a Red Book-recommended Panasonic RQ-309DS cassette deck
Apple II in a common 1977 configuration, with a 9" monochrome monitor, game paddles, and a Red Book-recommended Panasonic RQ-309DS cassette deck
An Apple II computer with an external modem
The three computers that Byte Magazine referred to as the "1977 Trinity" of home computing: Commodore PET 2001, Apple II, and TRS-80 Model I.
Advertisement for Apple II (1977)

The first computers went on sale on June 10, 1977 with an MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor running at 1.022,727 MHz (2⁄7 of the NTSC color carrier), two game paddles (bundled until 1980, when they were found to violate FCC regulations), 4 KiB of RAM, an audio cassette interface for loading programs and storing data, and the Integer BASIC programming language built into ROMs.

BBC Micro Model A/B (standard configuration)

BBC Micro

Series of microcomputers and associated peripherals designed and built by Acorn Computers in the 1980s for the BBC Computer Literacy Project.

Series of microcomputers and associated peripherals designed and built by Acorn Computers in the 1980s for the BBC Computer Literacy Project.

BBC Micro Model A/B (standard configuration)
BBC Micro Model A/B (standard configuration)
Some of the BBC Micro team in 2008
Keyboard of a Model B, one of two very similar designs used on the model
Rear of the BBC Micro. Ports from left to right: UHF out, video out, RGB, RS-423, cassette, analogue in and Econet.
Advert in Interface Age magazine, November 1983, The BBC Microcomputer Is Here!
Elite (Acornsoft, 1984). The unusual game screen used two display modes at once, to show both detail and colour.
BASIC prompt after switch-on or hard reset
Acorn co-founder Hermann Hauser playing a game on a Master in 2012
Clockwise from top left: Hermann Hauser, Andy Hopper, Christopher Curry, Sophie Wilson, David Allen, Chris Serle, David Kitson, Chris Turner, and Steve Furber at the BBC Micro 30th anniversary in 2012

Known as the Proton, it included better graphics and a faster 2 MHz MOS Technology 6502 central processing unit.

Motorola MC6800 microprocessor

Motorola 6800

8-bit microprocessor designed and first manufactured by Motorola in 1974.

8-bit microprocessor designed and first manufactured by Motorola in 1974.

Motorola MC6800 microprocessor
Motorola began making semiconductors in the 1950s.
Block diagram of a M6800 microcomputer system
Motorola 6800 DIP chip pinout
MIKBUG was part of the extensive M6800 microcomputer support developed by Motorola's Application Engineering Group.
A Motorola MC6800 microprocessor registers and I/O lines
A silicon wafer holding many integrated circuit chips
An early advertisement for the Motorola's M6800 family microcomputer system
Introductory advertisement for the MOS Technology MCS6501 microprocessor in August 1975
The M6800 family chips were redesigned to use depletion-mode technology. The MC6820 PIA became the MC6821.
Three typical applications for the MC6800, as shown in a Motorola advertisement from August 1976: a point-of-sale terminal, a electronic signal tester, and a security card entry system.
The SWTPC 6800 computer system, introduced in November 1975, was based on the MEK6800 design evaluation kit chip set.
MITS Altair 680
The Tektronix 4051 graphics computing system used a 6800 microprocessor.
AMI S6800 MPU
Atari 90-6001
Fairchild F6802P and an AMI S6820 PIA
Hitachi HD46800

In September 1975 Robert H. Cushman, EDN magazine's microprocessor editor, interviewed Chuck Peddle about MOS Technology's new 6502 microprocessor.

Rockwell B-1 Lancer

Rockwell International

Major American manufacturing conglomerate involved in aircraft, the space industry, defense and commercial electronics, components in the automotive industry, printing presses, avionics and industrial products.

Major American manufacturing conglomerate involved in aircraft, the space industry, defense and commercial electronics, components in the automotive industry, printing presses, avionics and industrial products.

Rockwell B-1 Lancer
General purpose UK-specification electric drill for home/hobby use purchased circa 1980 fitted with UK-standard BS1363 plug-top
Rockwell Commander 114
Space Shuttle orbiter Endeavour

In 1978, Rockwell released AIM-65, a one board microprocessor development board based on the MOS Technology 6502.

Four-switch VCS model (1980–1982)

Atari 2600

Home video game console developed and produced by Atari, Inc. Released in September 1977, it popularized microprocessor-based hardware and games stored on swappable ROM cartridges, a format first used with the Fairchild Channel F in 1976.

Home video game console developed and produced by Atari, Inc. Released in September 1977, it popularized microprocessor-based hardware and games stored on swappable ROM cartridges, a format first used with the Fairchild Channel F in 1976.

Four-switch VCS model (1980–1982)
Four-switch VCS model (1980–1982)
The first Stella prototype on display at the Computer History Museum
The second VCS model has lighter plastic molding and shielding, and a more angular shape, than the 1977 launch model.
From 1980, the VCS has only four front switches and a capital-letters logotype.
David Crane's Pitfall! (1982) shows more advanced graphics than the games the VCS was launched with.
CX40 joystick
Cover art for Atari's games, such as this cover for Combat illustrated by Cliff Spohn, were aimed to capture the player's imagination and obviate the low fidelity of game graphics.
"The Art of Video Games" (2012) at the Smithsonian American Art Museum, with Pac-Man, Space Invaders, Pitfall!, and Combat

In September 1975, MOS Technology debuted the 6502 microprocessor for US$25 at the Wescon trade show in San Francisco.

Atari Lynx I

Atari Lynx

Hybrid 8-bit and 16-bit handheld game console released by Atari Corporation in September 1989 in North America, and in Europe and Japan in 1990.

Hybrid 8-bit and 16-bit handheld game console released by Atari Corporation in September 1989 in North America, and in Europe and Japan in 1990.

Atari Lynx I
Atari Lynx I
The Atari Lynx II, smaller and lighter than the original
The motherboard of an Atari Lynx II. The larger chip is the "Mikey" and the smaller is called "Suzy".
The backlight from an Atari Lynx II. The CCFL tube has high power consumption.

WDC 8-bit 65SC02 processor (based on the MOS 6502) running at up to 4 MHz (3.6 MHz average)

Commodore PET 2001

Commodore PET

Line of personal computers produced starting in 1977 by Commodore International.

Line of personal computers produced starting in 1977 by Commodore International.

Commodore PET 2001
Original prototype PET, in the storage warehouse of the Computer History Museum, Mountain View, California
The chiclet keyboard of the PET 2001 series
Drawing of chiclet keyboard of the PET 2001 series
An early PET 2001 integrated cassette recorder
PET 2001 with its top lifted
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CBM Model 4016
CBM 4040 dual disk drive (5.25-inch)
CBM 8296-D with two floppy disk drives
Commodore Pet Katakana Keyboard
Commodore 8028 daisy wheel printer

A single all-in-one case combines a MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor, Commodore BASIC in read-only memory, keyboard, computer monitor, and, in early models, a cassette deck.