MP3

.mp3MP3 downloadMP3 filesmp3sMPEG-1 Audio Layer IIIdigital formatMP3 formatMPEG Layer IIIMPEG-1 Layer 33
MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) is a coding format for digital audio.wikipedia
2,562 Related Articles

Audio coding format

audio codingaudio coding standardaudio compression format
MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) is a coding format for digital audio.
Examples of audio coding formats include MP3, AAC, Vorbis, FLAC, and Opus.

MPEG-1

MPEG-1 Part 2MPGMPEG1
Originally defined as the third audio format of the MPEG-1 standard, it was retained and further extended—defining additional bit-rates and support for more audio channels—as the third audio format of the subsequent MPEG-2 standard.
Perhaps the best-known part of the MPEG-1 standard is the MP3 audio format it introduced.

Ripping

DVD ripperripripped
The MP3 format soon became associated with controversies surrounding copyright infringement, music piracy, and the file ripping/sharing services MP3.com and Napster, among others.
Later the term was used to extract WAV or MP3 format files from digital audio CDs, but got applied as well to extract the contents of any media, most notably DVD and Blu-ray discs.

Napster

Napster LiveFleemsterMP3 sharing
The MP3 format soon became associated with controversies surrounding copyright infringement, music piracy, and the file ripping/sharing services MP3.com and Napster, among others.
It was founded as a pioneering peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing Internet software that emphasized sharing digital audio files, typically audio songs, encoded in MP3 format.

Portable media player

media playerportable media playersdigital audio players
With the advent of portable media players, a product category also including smartphones, MP3 support remains near-universal.
Often mobile digital audio players are marketed and sold as "portable MP3 players", even if they also support other file formats and media types.

Lossy compression

lossylossy data compressioncompressed
In the aspects of MP3 pertaining to audio compression—the aspect of the standard most apparent to end-users (and for which is it best known)—MP3 uses lossy data-compression to encode data using inexact approximations and the partial discarding of data. The discrete cosine transform (DCT), a type of transform coding for lossy compression, was proposed by Nasir Ahmed in 1972, and developed by Ahmed with T. Natarajan and K. R. Rao in 1973, publishing their results in 1974.
DCT is the most widely used form of lossy compression, for popular image compression formats (such as JPEG), video coding standards (such as MPEG and H.264/AVC) and audio compression formats (such as MP3 and AAC).

Discrete cosine transform

DCTiDCTinverse discrete cosine transform
The discrete cosine transform (DCT), a type of transform coding for lossy compression, was proposed by Nasir Ahmed in 1972, and developed by Ahmed with T. Natarajan and K. R. Rao in 1973, publishing their results in 1974.
It is used in most digital media, including digital images (such as JPEG and HEIF, where small high-frequency components can be discarded), digital video (such as MPEG, H.26x and Vorbis), digital audio (such as Dolby Digital, MP3 and AAC), digital television (such as SDTV, HDTV and VOD), digital radio (such as AAC+ and DAB+), and speech coding (such as AAC-LD, Siren and Opus).

File sharing

file-sharingfilesharingsharing
The MP3 format soon became associated with controversies surrounding copyright infringement, music piracy, and the file ripping/sharing services MP3.com and Napster, among others.
The mp3 encoding, which was standardized in 1991 and substantially reduced the size of audio files, grew to widespread use in the late 1990s.

MPEG-2

MPEG2H.222MPEG 2
Originally defined as the third audio format of the MPEG-1 standard, it was retained and further extended—defining additional bit-rates and support for more audio channels—as the third audio format of the subsequent MPEG-2 standard.
MPEG-2 part 3 also defined additional bit rates and sample rates for MPEG-1 Audio Layer I, II and III.

Suzanne Vega

Suzanne
The song "Tom's Diner" by Suzanne Vega was the first song used by Karlheinz Brandenburg to develop the MP3.
The song was used as a test during the creation of the MP3 format.

Karlheinz Brandenburg

Dr. Karlheinz BrandenburgBrandenburg, Karlheinz
As a doctoral student at Germany's University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Karlheinz Brandenburg began working on digital music compression in the early 1980s, focusing on how people perceive music.
Together with Ernst Eberlein, Heinz Gerhäuser (former Institutes Director of Fraunhofer IIS), Bernhard Grill, Jürgen Herre and Harald Popp (all Fraunhofer IIS), he developed the widespread MP3 method for audio data compression.

Bernhard Grill

MP3 is directly descended from OCF and PXFM, representing the outcome of the collaboration of Brandenburg—working as a postdoc at AT&T-Bell Labs with James D. Johnston ("JJ") of AT&T-Bell Labs—with the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits, Erlangen (where he worked with Bernhard Grill and four other researchers – "The Original Six" ), with relatively minor contributions from the MP2 branch of psychoacoustic sub-band coders.
Bernhard Grill (born January 5, 1961) is one of the developers of the MP3 technology.

MP3 player

digital audio playerMP3 playersmusic player
Files or data streams conforming to this standard must handle sample rates of 48k, 44100 and 32k and continue to be supported by current MP3 players and decoders.
An MP3 player is an electronic device that can play MP3 digital audio files.

CSELT

A working group consisting of van de Kerkhof, Stoll, Leonardo Chiariglione (CSELT VP for Media), Yves-François Dehery, Karlheinz Brandenburg (Germany) and James D. Johnston (United States) took ideas from ASPEC, integrated the filter bank from Layer II, added some of their own ideas such as the joint stereo coding of MUSICAM and created the MP3 format, which was designed to achieve the same quality at 128 kbit/s as MP2 at 192 kbit/s.
It played a big role internationally especially in the standardization of protocols and technologies in telecommunication: perhaps the most widely well known is the standardization of mp3.

MPEG-1 Audio Layer II

MP2MPEG-1 Layer IIMUSICAM
A working group consisting of van de Kerkhof, Stoll, Leonardo Chiariglione (CSELT VP for Media), Yves-François Dehery, Karlheinz Brandenburg (Germany) and James D. Johnston (United States) took ideas from ASPEC, integrated the filter bank from Layer II, added some of their own ideas such as the joint stereo coding of MUSICAM and created the MP3 format, which was designed to achieve the same quality at 128 kbit/s as MP2 at 192 kbit/s. The first group was MUSICAM, by Matsushita, CCETT, ITT and Philips.
MPEG-1 Audio Layer II or MPEG-2 Audio Layer II (MP2, sometimes incorrectly called Musicam or MUSICAM) is a lossy audio compression format defined by ISO/IEC 11172-3 alongside MPEG-1 Audio Layer I and MPEG-1 Audio Layer III (MP3).

Codec

codecsdecoderdecoders
In 1978, Bishnu S. Atal and Manfred R. Schroeder at Bell Labs proposed an LPC speech codec, called adaptive predictive coding, that used a psychoacoustic coding algorithm exploiting the masking properties of the human ear.
The most widely used lossy data compression technique in digital media is based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT), used in compression standards such as JPEG images, H.26x and MPEG video, and MP3 and AAC audio.

LAME

LAME encoderLAME MP3 encoderlibmp3lame
While not an ISO recognized standard, MPEG-2.5 is widely supported by both inexpensive Chinese and brand name digital audio players as well as computer software based MP3 encoders (LAME), decoders (FFmpeg) and players (MPC) adding 3*8=24 additional MP3 frame types.
LAME is a software encoder that converts audio to the MP3 file format.

Auditory masking

temporal maskingmaskingSimultaneous masking
The MP3 lossy audio data compression algorithm takes advantage of a perceptual limitation of human hearing called auditory masking.
This is used in MP3 files to reduce the size of audio files.

Elementary stream

compressed bit-streamESmain data stream
MP3 (or mp3) as a file format commonly designates files containing an elementary stream of MPEG-1 audio and video encoded data, without other complexities of the MP3 standard.

Tom's Diner

Tom's Album
The song "Tom's Diner" by Suzanne Vega was the first song used by Karlheinz Brandenburg to develop the MP3.
An article in the now defunct magazine Business 2.0 revealed that "Tom's Diner" was also used by Karlheinz Brandenburg to develop the audio compression scheme known as MP3 at what is now the Fraunhofer Society.

Sub-band coding

sub-bandsub-band coderSubband
The MUSICAM format, based on sub-band coding, became the basis for the MPEG Audio compression format, incorporating, for example, its frame structure, header format, sample rates, etc.
SBC is the core technique used in many popular lossy audio compression algorithms including MP3.

WinPlay3

With the first real-time software MP3 player WinPlay3 (released 9 September 1995) many people were able to encode and play back MP3 files on their PCs.
WinPlay3 was the first real-time MP3 audio player for PCs running Windows, both 16-bit (Windows 3.1) and 32-bit (Windows 95).

L3enc

On 7 July 1994, the Fraunhofer Society released the first software MP3 encoder called l3enc.
Fraunhofer l3enc was the first public software able to encode PCM (.wav) files to the MP3 format.

Nasir Ahmed (engineer)

Nasir AhmedN. Ahmed
The discrete cosine transform (DCT), a type of transform coding for lossy compression, was proposed by Nasir Ahmed in 1972, and developed by Ahmed with T. Natarajan and K. R. Rao in 1973, publishing their results in 1974.
A DCT variant, the modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT), is used in modern audio compression formats such as MP3, Advanced Audio Coding (AAC), and Vorbis (OGG).

Data compression

compressionvideo compressioncompressed
In the aspects of MP3 pertaining to audio compression—the aspect of the standard most apparent to end-users (and for which is it best known)—MP3 uses lossy data-compression to encode data using inexact approximations and the partial discarding of data. The MP3 lossy audio data compression algorithm takes advantage of a perceptual limitation of human hearing called auditory masking.
DCT is the most widely used lossy compression method, and is used in multimedia formats for images (such as JPEG and HEIF), video (such as MPEG, AVC and HEVC) and audio (such as MP3, AAC and Vorbis).