MP3

.mp3MP3 downloadmp3sMPEG Layer 3MP3 filesMP3 formatdigital format3IIIMPEG-2.5 layer 3
MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) is a coding format for digital audio.wikipedia
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MPEG-1

MPG.mpgMPEG-1 Part 2
Originally defined as the third audio format of the MPEG-1 standard, it was retained and further extended—defining additional bit-rates and support for more audio channels—as the third audio format of the subsequent MPEG-2 standard.
Perhaps the best-known part of the MPEG-1 standard is the MP3 audio format it introduced.

Ripping

riprippedDigital Audio Extraction
The MP3 format soon became associated with controversies surrounding copyright infringement, music piracy, and the file ripping/sharing services MP3.com and Napster, among others.
Later the term was used to extract WAV or MP3 format files from digital audio CDs, but got applied as well to extract the contents of any media, most notably DVD and Blu-ray discs.

Audio coding format

audio coding standardaudio compression formatAudio coding
MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) is a coding format for digital audio.
Examples of audio coding formats include MP3, AAC, Vorbis, FLAC, and Opus.

Napster

Napster LiveFleemsternappster.com
The MP3 format soon became associated with controversies surrounding copyright infringement, music piracy, and the file ripping/sharing services MP3.com and Napster, among others.
It was founded as a pioneering peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing Internet service that emphasized sharing digital audio files, typically audio songs, encoded in MP3 format.

Lossy compression

lossylossy data compressioncompressed
In the aspects of MP3 pertaining to audio compression—the aspect of the standard most apparent to end-users (and for which is it best known)—MP3 uses lossy data-compression to encode data using inexact approximations and the partial discarding of data.
While data reduction (compression, be it lossy or lossless) is a main goal of transform coding, it also allows other goals: one may represent data more accurately for the original amount of space – for example, in principle, if one starts with an analog or high-resolution digital master, an MP3 file of a given size should provide a better representation than a raw uncompressed audio in WAV or AIFF file of the same size.

Psychoacoustics

psychoacousticpsychoacoustic modelpsychoacoustical
This method is commonly referred to as perceptual coding or as psychoacoustic modeling.
Data compression techniques, such as MP3, make use of this fact.

File sharing

file-sharingfilesharingsharing
The MP3 format soon became associated with controversies surrounding copyright infringement, music piracy, and the file ripping/sharing services MP3.com and Napster, among others.
The mp3 encoding, which was standardized in 1991 and substantially reduced the size of audio files, grew to widespread use in the late 1990s.

Digital audio

digital musicaudiodigital
MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) is a coding format for digital audio.
Audio data compression techniques, such as MP3, Advanced Audio Coding, Ogg Vorbis, or FLAC, are commonly employed to reduce the file size.

Suzanne Vega

SuzanneSuzanne Vega,
The song "Tom's Diner" by Suzanne Vega was the first song used by Karlheinz Brandenburg to develop the MP3.
The song was used as a test during the creation of the MP3 format.

Karlheinz Brandenburg

Dr. Karlheinz BrandenburgBrandenburg, Karlheinz
As a doctoral student at Germany's University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Karlheinz Brandenburg began working on digital music compression in the early 1980s, focusing on how people perceive music.
Together with Ernst Eberlein, Heinz Gerhäuser (former Institutes Director of Fraunhofer IIS), Bernhard Grill, Jürgen Herre and Harald Popp (all Fraunhofer IIS), he developed the widespread MP3 method for audio data compression.

Bernhard Grill

MP3 is directly descended from OCF and PXFM, representing the outcome of the collaboration of Brandenburg—working as a postdoc at AT&T-Bell Labs with James D. Johnston ("JJ") of AT&T-Bell Labs—with the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits, Erlangen (where he worked with Bernhard Grill and four other researchers – "The Original Six" ), with relatively minor contributions from the MP2 branch of psychoacoustic sub-band coders.
Bernhard Grill (born January 5, 1961) is one of the developers of the MP3 technology.

CSELT

A working group consisting of van de Kerkhof, Stoll, Italian Leonardo Chiariglione (CSELT VP for Media), Frenchman Yves-François Dehery, German Karlheinz Brandenburg, and American James D. Johnston (United States) took ideas from ASPEC, integrated the filter bank from Layer II, added some of their own ideas such as the joint stereo coding of MUSICAM and created the MP3 format, which was designed to achieve the same quality at 128 kbit/s as MP2 at 192 kbit/s.
It played a big role internationally especially in the standardization of protocols and technologies in telecommunication: perhaps the most widely well known is the standardization of mp3.

MPEG-2

MPEG2DVDH.262 / MPEG-2 Part 2 video
Originally defined as the third audio format of the MPEG-1 standard, it was retained and further extended—defining additional bit-rates and support for more audio channels—as the third audio format of the subsequent MPEG-2 standard.
MPEG-2 part 3 also defined additional bit rates and sample rates for MPEG-1 Audio Layer I, II and III.

MP3 player

digital audio playerMP3 playersmusic player
Files or data streams conforming to this standard must handle sample rates of 48k, 44100 and 32k and continue to be supported by current MP3 players and decoders.
Since the MP3 format is widely used, almost all players can play that format.

MPEG-1 Audio Layer II

MP22II
A working group consisting of van de Kerkhof, Stoll, Italian Leonardo Chiariglione (CSELT VP for Media), Frenchman Yves-François Dehery, German Karlheinz Brandenburg, and American James D. Johnston (United States) took ideas from ASPEC, integrated the filter bank from Layer II, added some of their own ideas such as the joint stereo coding of MUSICAM and created the MP3 format, which was designed to achieve the same quality at 128 kbit/s as MP2 at 192 kbit/s. The first group was MUSICAM, by Matsushita, CCETT, ITT and Philips.
MPEG-1 Audio Layer II or MPEG-2 Audio Layer II (MP2, sometimes incorrectly called Musicam or MUSICAM) is a lossy audio compression format defined by ISO/IEC 11172-3 alongside MPEG-1 Audio Layer I and MPEG-1 Audio Layer III (MP3).

Tom's Diner

The song "Tom's Diner" by Suzanne Vega was the first song used by Karlheinz Brandenburg to develop the MP3.
An article in the now defunct magazine Business 2.0 revealed that "Tom's Diner" was also used by Karlheinz Brandenburg to develop the audio compression scheme known as MP3 at what is now the Fraunhofer Society.

LAME

LAME encoderLAME MP3 encoderlibmp3lame
While not an ISO recognized standard, MPEG-2.5 is widely supported by both inexpensive Chinese and brand name digital audio players as well as computer software based MP3 encoders (LAME), decoders (FFmpeg) and players (MPC) adding 3*8=24 additional MP3 frame types.
LAME is a software encoder that converts audio to the MP3 file format.

Elementary stream

compressed bit-streamESmain data stream
MP3 (or mp3) as a file format commonly designates files containing an elementary stream of MPEG-1 audio and video encoded data, without other complexities of the MP3 standard.
The digitized sound signal is divided up into blocks of 384 samples in Layer I and 1152 samples in Layers II and III.

Auditory masking

maskingtemporal maskingsimultaneous masking
The MP3 lossy audio data compression algorithm takes advantage of a perceptual limitation of human hearing called auditory masking.
This is used in MP3 files to reduce the size of audio files.

Sub-band coding

sub-bandsub-band coderSubband
The MUSICAM format, based on sub-band coding, became the basis for the MPEG Audio compression format, incorporating, for example, its frame structure, header format, sample rates, etc.
SBC is the core technique used in many popular lossy audio compression algorithms including MP3.

Codec

codecsdecoderdecoders
The psychoacoustic masking codec was first proposed in 1979, apparently independently, by Manfred R. Schroeder, et al. from Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. in Murray Hill, New Jersey, and M. A. Krasner both in the United States.
For example, raw uncompressed PCM audio (44.1 kHz, 16 bit stereo, as represented on an audio CD or in a .wav or .aiff file) has long been a standard across multiple platforms, but its transmission over networks is slow and expensive compared with more modern compressed formats, such as Opus and MP3.

Streaming media

streamingstreamedstreaming video
Also designed as a streamable format, segments of a transmission can be lost without affecting the ability to decode later segments.
The audio stream is compressed to make the file size smaller using an audio coding format such as MP3, Vorbis, AAC or Opus.

L3enc

On 7 July 1994, the Fraunhofer Society released the first software MP3 encoder called l3enc.
Fraunhofer l3enc was the first public software able to encode PCM (.wav) files to the MP3 format.

WinPlay3

The filename extension .mp3 was chosen by the Fraunhofer team on 14 July 1995 (previously, the files had been named .bit). With the first real-time software MP3 player WinPlay3 (released 9 September 1995) many people were able to encode and play back MP3 files on their PCs.
WinPlay3 was the first real-time MP3 audio player for PCs running Windows, both 16-bit (Windows 3.1) and 32-bit (Windows 95).

Hiroshi Yasuda

The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) was established in 1988 by the initiative of Hiroshi Yasuda (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone) and Leonardo Chiariglione.
In the sphere of international standardization, together with Dr. Leonardo Chiariglione he founded the Moving Picture Experts Group which standardized MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3, better known as MP3.