MPEG-1

MPEG-1 Part 2MPGMPEG1.mpgMPEG.mpegISO/IEC 11172-3.MPG (MPEG-1).mpg/mpeg1
MPEG-1 is a standard for lossy compression of video and audio.wikipedia
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Video CD

VCDVCDsVideo-CD
It is designed to compress VHS-quality raw digital video and CD audio down to about 1.5 Mbit/s (26:1 and 6:1 compression ratios respectively) without excessive quality loss, making video CDs, digital cable/satellite TV and digital audio broadcasting (DAB) possible.
However, they are less widely playable in some Blu-ray Disc players, in-car infotainment with DVD/Blu-ray support and video game consoles such as the Sony PlayStation 3-4 due to lack of support for backward compatibility of the older MPEG-1 format.

H.261

The predecessor of MPEG-1 for video coding was the H.261 standard produced by the CCITT (now known as the ITU-T).
In fact, all subsequent international video coding standards (MPEG-1 Part 2, H.262/MPEG-2 Part 2, H.263, MPEG-4 Part 2, H.264/MPEG-4 Part 10, and HEVC) have been based closely on the H.261 design.

Macroblock

macroblocksmacroblockingblock
It uses macroblocks of size 16×16 with block-based motion estimation in the encoder and motion compensation using encoder-selected motion vectors in the decoder, with residual difference coding using a discrete cosine transform (DCT) of size 8×8, scalar quantization, and variable-length codes (like Huffman codes) for entropy coding.
Formats which are based on macroblocks include JPEG, where they are called MCU blocks, H.261, MPEG-1 Part 2, H.262/MPEG-2 Part 2, H.263, MPEG-4 Part 2, and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC.

Motion compensation

motion-compensatedmotion estimationmotion compensated
It uses macroblocks of size 16×16 with block-based motion estimation in the encoder and motion compensation using encoder-selected motion vectors in the decoder, with residual difference coding using a discrete cosine transform (DCT) of size 8×8, scalar quantization, and variable-length codes (like Huffman codes) for entropy coding. The basic architecture established in H.261 was the motion-compensated DCT hybrid video coding structure.
Older designs such as H.261 and MPEG-1 video typically use a fixed block size, while newer ones such as H.263, MPEG-4 Part 2, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, and VC-1 give the encoder the ability to dynamically choose what block size will be used to represent the motion.

MPEG-2

MPEG2H.222MPEG 2
In July 1990, before the first draft of the MPEG-1 standard had even been written, work began on a second standard, MPEG-2, intended to extend MPEG-1 technology to provide full broadcast-quality video (as per CCIR 601) at high bitrates (3–15 Mbit/s) and support for interlaced video.
The other is the program stream, an extended version of the MPEG-1 container format with less overhead than transport stream.

CD-i

Philips CD-iPhilips Interactive MediaGreen Book
Authoring kits for the format were released first in 1988, and the first player aimed for home consumers, Philips's CDI 910/205, at the end of 1991, initially priced around US$1,000, and capable of playing interactive CD-i discs, Audio CDs, CD+G (CD+Graphics), Karaoke CDs, Photo CDs and Video CDs (VCDs), though the latter required an optional "Digital Video Card" to provide MPEG-1 decoding.

DVD-Video

DVDDVD-VDVD video
To record digital video, DVD-Video uses either H.262/MPEG-2 Part 2 compression at up to 9.8 Mbit/s (9,800 kbit/s) or MPEG-1 Part 2 compression at up to 1.856 Mbit/s (1,856 kbit/s).

Lossy compression

lossylossy data compressioncompressed
MPEG-1 is a standard for lossy compression of video and audio.

Leonardo Chiariglione

Modeled on the successful collaborative approach and the compression technologies developed by the Joint Photographic Experts Group and CCITT's Experts Group on Telephony (creators of the JPEG image compression standard and the H.261 standard for video conferencing respectively), the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) working group was established in January 1988, by the initiative of Hiroshi Yasuda (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone) and Leonardo Chiariglione (CSELT).
This group, with a membership of over 300 experts, representing 20 countries and various industries having a stake in digital audio and video, produced the MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 standards that have facilitated the digital audio-visual revolution.

MPEG program stream

MPEG-PSProgram stream.MPEGPS
This structure was later named an MPEG program stream: "The MPEG-1 Systems design is essentially identical to the MPEG-2 Program Stream structure."
The PS format is specified in MPEG-1 Part 1 (ISO/IEC 11172-1) and MPEG-2 Part 1, Systems (ISO/IEC standard 13818-1 /ITU-T H.222.0 ).

Source Input Format

SIFSIF 625
MPEG-1 videos are most commonly seen using Source Input Format (SIF) resolution: 352×240, 352×288, or 320×240.
Source Input Format (SIF) defined in MPEG-1, is a video format that was developed to allow the storage and transmission of digital video.

Video

analog videovideo albumvideo recording
MPEG-1 is a standard for lossy compression of video and audio.

Data compression

compressionvideo compressioncompressed
This means that MPEG-1 coding efficiency can drastically vary depending on the encoder used, and generally means that newer encoders perform significantly better than their predecessors.
Most, if not all, of the authors in the JSAC edition were also active in the MPEG-1 Audio committee, which created the MP3 format.

Advanced Audio Coding

AACAAC-LCMPEG-4 AAC
Decoding MP2 audio is computationally simple relative to MP3, AAC, etc. More recent testing has shown that MPEG Multichannel (based on MP2), despite being compromised by an inferior matrixed mode (for the sake of backwards compatibility) rates just slightly lower than much more recent audio codecs, such as Dolby Digital (AC-3) and Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) (mostly within the margin of error—and substantially superior in some cases, such as audience applause).
Therefore, MPEG-2 Part 7 is also known as MPEG-2 NBC (Non-Backward Compatible), because it is not compatible with the MPEG-1 audio formats (MP1, MP2 and MP3).

MP3

.mp3MP3 downloadMP3 files
Perhaps the best-known part of the MPEG-1 standard is the MP3 audio format it introduced.
Originally defined as the third audio format of the MPEG-1 standard, it was retained and further extended—defining additional bit-rates and support for more audio channels—as the third audio format of the subsequent MPEG-2 standard.

Discrete cosine transform

DCTiDCTinverse discrete cosine transform
It uses macroblocks of size 16×16 with block-based motion estimation in the encoder and motion compensation using encoder-selected motion vectors in the decoder, with residual difference coding using a discrete cosine transform (DCT) of size 8×8, scalar quantization, and variable-length codes (like Huffman codes) for entropy coding. The basic architecture established in H.261 was the motion-compensated DCT hybrid video coding structure.

MPEG Multichannel

7.1 channelsMultichannel support
More recent testing has shown that MPEG Multichannel (based on MP2), despite being compromised by an inferior matrixed mode (for the sake of backwards compatibility) rates just slightly lower than much more recent audio codecs, such as Dolby Digital (AC-3) and Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) (mostly within the margin of error—and substantially superior in some cases, such as audience applause).

Compression artifact

artifactscompression artifactsmosquito noise
Compared to other digital compression artifacts, this issue seems to very rarely be a source of annoyance.
When motion prediction is used, as in MPEG-1, MPEG-2 or MPEG-4, compression artifacts tend to remain on several generations of decompressed frames, and move with the optic flow of the image, leading to a peculiar effect, part way between a painting effect and "grime" that moves with objects in the scene.

ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29

SC 29
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 has published 475 standards, including standards for JPEG (ISO/IEC 10918-1), JPEG-2000 (ISO/IEC 15444-1), MPEG-1 (ISO/IEC 11172-1), MPEG-2 (ISO/IEC 13818), MPEG-4 (ISO/IEC 14996-1), MPEG-4 AVC (ISO/IEC 14496-10), JBIG (ISO/IEC 11544), and MHEG-5 (ISO/IEC 13522-5).

Motion JPEG

MJPEGM-JPEGAVI Motion JPEG
I-frame only MPEG-1 video is very similar to MJPEG video.
Whereas modern interframe video formats, such as MPEG1, MPEG2 and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, achieve real-world compression ratios of 1:50 or better, M-JPEG's lack of interframe prediction limits its efficiency to 1:20 or lower, depending on the tolerance to spatial artifacting in the compressed output.

Moving Picture Experts Group

MPEGMotion Picture Experts GroupMPEG encoding
Modeled on the successful collaborative approach and the compression technologies developed by the Joint Photographic Experts Group and CCITT's Experts Group on Telephony (creators of the JPEG image compression standard and the H.261 standard for video conferencing respectively), the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) working group was established in January 1988, by the initiative of Hiroshi Yasuda (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone) and Leonardo Chiariglione (CSELT).

Group of pictures

GOPGOPsGroup Of Pictures (GOP)
The length between I-frames is known as the group of pictures (GOP) size.